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archeologii, antropologii i etnografii»
Summary and keywords for the last 2 years
Traces of early Paleolithic age on the territory of Middle Trans-Urals
Subject to presentation being data on sporadic stone articles covered with thick patina. They were found on redeposited locations of early Paleolithic age. Sometimes they occur in later complexes where they could get as mineral raw materials for further reutilization or as sacral antiquities. Among aeruginous articles, the most noticeable ones being manual chippers, bifaces, strickles and massive fakes. Types of the articles, methods of their making and deep patina allows to refer them to early Paleolithic age.
Early Paleolithic age, redeposited sites, chippers, bifaces, strickles, patina, secondary use of ancient articles.
Lychagina Ye.L., Mitroshin Ye.N., Poplevko G.N.
Complex analysis of stone inventory from the settlement of Chashkinsky Ozero VI (after excavation results of 2005)
The article is devoted to complex analysis of stone inventory from the settlement of Chashkinsky Ozero VI. This settlement is one of the biggest and well investigated Neolithic sites on the territory of the Upper and Middle Kama basin. It was a collection of 2005 that was selected as an investigation object. In the course of work, they undertook a typological, traceological and planigraphic analysis of the stone inventory. Complex analysis allowed to identify the following typical features: prevailing of traceologically identified tools on plates over those on flakes; minor sizes of workpieces, use of different types of workpieces for different types of tools (for example, use of flakes for strickles, and plates for meat and fish knives); availability of various shapes of tools under a leading role of strickles, scrapers, and knives; absence of clearly distinct, special areas for treatment of this or that material.
The Kama basin, Neolithic age, stone inventory, typological analysis, traceological analysis, planigraphic analysis, the Volga-and-Kama Neolithic culture.
Yepimakhov A.V., Mosin V.S.
Chronology of Trans-Urals Eneolithic
The article generalizes investigation results regarding Eneolithic sites from Trans-Urals. Summarizing of calibrated radiocarbon dates made it possible to establish chronological frames of 4300–3000 (4500–2200) B.C. period, stating total or partial synchronism in the majority of the pottery types. Their combination within one and the same sites assumes that the territory was functioning as cultural continuum. Lliving space of Trans-Urals Eneolithic population covered several natural zones: forest-steppe, piedmont and forest ones. A system of relations was supported by means of annual household cycle, marital and other forms of relations.
Eneolithic, Trans-Urals, radiocarbon chronology, material culture, pottery traditions.
Pottery of the Fyodorovo culture from the settlement of Schetkovo 2 in the Low Tobol basin (results of technical-and-technological analysis)
The article presents results of technical-and-technological analysis regarding a pottery complex of the Fyodorovo culture from the settlement of Schetkovo 2. The obtained analytical data allowed to identify traditions in skills existing with the Fyodorovo settlement population regarding selection and preparation of initial plastic mixture, composing of moulding compounds, shaping of vessels and methods of treating their surfaces, as well as kilning of articles. Basing on the obtained data and their correlation with available data on other settlements from the Low Tobol basin, the Fyodorovo pottery complex from the settlement of Schetkovo 2 being considered as one of the earliest on the given territory.
Low Tobol basin, settlement of Schetkovo 2, the Fyodorovo culture, pottery, technical-and-technological analysis, ornamentation, statistical analysis.
Complexes of the Krasnoozerka culture of the Low Ishim-and-Irtysh basins
The article quotes comparative results of the Krasnoozerka culture pottery complexes from the Low Ishim and Low Irtysh basins. Subject to consideration being local distinctions regarding dynamics of the Krasnoozerka culture in each of the regions.
Low Ishim basin, Low Irtysh basin, transitional time from Bronze age to Iron àge, the Krasnoozerka culture, pottery.
Kuzminykh S.V., Degtyareva A.D.
Production of non-ferrous metal of Itkul culture (preliminary results of analytical researches)
The conducted research by methods of spectral, metalgraphic analyses revealed use of technologies of receiving of non-ferrous metal stock, peculiar and unique for an Åarly Iron àge. On the basis of statistical pro-cessing of analytical data use by metallurgists of Itkul culture of the pure oxidized copper marked by a the microstructural method inclusions of an eutectic of Cu–Cu2O and also in much smaller measure artificial bronze is established. Products were received only foundry technologies, forge completion is in rare instances noted. This model of production is characteristic for early metalmaking economies (Yamnaya Ural area, Lipchinka, Petrovka Zauralye, Garino, Volosovo cultures of Volgo-Kamye), is later during an era of Bronze and Early Iron it wasn't used anywhere. Using so archaic and rather labor-consuming technology interfaced to achievement when melting more high temperatures in comparison with the alloyed bronza, Itkul metallurgists for the purpose of a deoxidation of copper modernized technology addition of iron in copper fusion. The reason of an observed paradoxical situation — use of copper not alloyed bronze, and oxidized — is covered available the richest deposits of malachite of the Gumeshevsky mine which is near itkul settlements. Itkul masters addressed to the forgotten archaic ways and technologies of processing of the oxidized copper, however the part of skills and receptions to them didn't manage to be restored, frequent cases of foundry marriage were a consequence of that. Metal of the Ural Iitkul) origin — as production (tips of arrows, knives, coppers, etc.) so raw materials — was basic for metal working of forest-steppe and steppe cultures of Western Siberia (from the Urals to Ishim) and Ural area. The part of Itkul copper, undoubtedly, came and to Prikamye, to the production centers of the ananyinsky world.
Early Iron age, Central Ural Mountains, Itkul culture, metallurgical center, metalloproduction.
Barsukov Ye.V., Bobrova A.I.
Urlyuk hillfort: historical evidences and archaeological realities
The article is devoted to analysis of written sources and archaeological data referring to Upper Ket basin. The focus of attention being Urlyuk hillfort — a fortified settlement of prince Urlyuk who headed one of non-Russian volosts at the Ket river in the early XVII century. The data on existence of that hillfort were repeatedly recorded by researchers from local population, though archaeologists never verified it. The article quotes extracts from written sources describing the location of Urlyuk hillfort together with data obtained as a result of archaeological explorations aimed at searching of that fortified locality.
Upper Ket basin, Late Middle ages, Early Iron age, archaeological exploration, Selkups, prince Urlyuk.
Sviridov À.À., Vasilyev S.V.
Three skulls from Melanesia (Loyalty Islands) with holes in a brain skull: trepanation, genetic pathology or infection?
The paper presents an attempt to interpret the defects identified at the three sculls natives of the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia). During the description of the anomalies used guidelines of domestic and foreign researchers. From our point of view, the holes in the cerebral department considered the skulls have different origins: trepanation, an enlarged parietal foramen (genetic pathology) and the destruction of the bones of the cranial vault, caused by an infection.
Ðaleopathology, Melanesia, the Loyalty Islands, trepanation, enlarged parietal foramen.
Zubova A.V., Kubareva G.V.
Craniological characteristic of Early Medieval population from Gorny Altai after materials from Kudyirge burial ground
The article considers craniological materials from Kudyirge burial ground of Turkic time in Gorny Altai. Basing on results of a statistical correlation of the given series with characteristics of simultaneous and chronologically prior population from Gorny Altai, Minusinsk Depression, and Novosibirsk Low Ob basin, the authors come to a conclusion on heterogeneity of the population from Gorny Altai in Turkic time, and presence of migrant substrate of the east origin in its composition. The latter dominates within series from Kudyirge, while the Turki of Katanda type are also represented with autochthonous component, running back to Pazyryk groups.
Gorny Altai, Old Turkic Age, Kudyirge, Gorny 10, Osinki, Katanda, craniology, paleoanthropology.
Poshekhonova O.Ye., Zubova A.V., Alexeyeva Ye.A.
Craniology, odontology and appearance of North Selkups after materials of Kikki-Akki burial ground
The article presents preliminary results of a detailed investigation of paleoanthropological materials from north Selkup burial ground of XVII–XIX century in the area of Kikki-Akki settlement. The paper discusses individual distinctions as to craniological status of the buried, introducing into scientific circulation reconstruction results of their appearance and preliminary investigation results of odontologic characteristics. Craniological specificity of the given group brings it together with east Khanty (Vakh river) and south Selkups, especially from northern part of their habitat (Tym river). The appearance of the buried is obviously demonstrated by facial reconstruction after crania. An interesting distinction of the given series stays an increased frequency of archaic forms as to differentiation of lower bicuspids, availability of front fossa and massive middle ridges of a trigonid on the first molars, being markers of deep archaic character. As to later crania, they were recorded with distinctions of influence from Mongoloid odontologic complex of continental origin.
West Siberia, North Selkups, paleoanthropology, craniology, odontology, appearance, anthropo-logical reconstruction.
On history of the Ichkin Tartars in the last third of XVII century — XVIII century
Basing on analysis of published and new materials, the paper gives reconstruction of development regarding one of the local Turkic groups from Trans-Urals — the Ichkin Tartars. The group was formed in the Low Isyet’ basin, where differentiation occurred between forming Siberian-Tartar and Bashkir ethnoses and groups of service class Tartars. In the second half of XVIII c., due to migration of the Ichkin group from the Isyet’ into newly allocated lands, subject to formation being Al’menkul’ group of the Ichkin Tartars. In formation of the Ichkin Tartars, one could trace both participation of Tobolsk service class Tartars and, to a great extent, of the population arrived from the Low Volga basin, including service class mescheryaks.
Tartars, class, service class, peasants on quitrent, mescheryaks, Ichkin, Al’menkul’, the Sejdya-shevs, the Kul’mametevs.
«Plan» by Tobolsk land surveyor, 1806, or how he took the wish for the reality (on location of Yermak’s grave)
The article focuses on the so called «Plan» from «Atlas of Tobolsk province, 1806» by V. Filimonov, where both in the text and on the plan he points to Yermak’s burial place by the former Begishevsky yurts, with reference to «A description of Siberian kingdom» by G.F. Miller. A critical comparison of an extract from that treatise with the text of the «Plan» detected a falsification in the source. It is subject to ataman’s grave, which the land surveyor imagines «to be announced by Tartars». It was in this way that «competent» marks and signs appeared in the «Plan». Thus, he took the wish for the reality. As a historical document, the «Plan» is of no value, though of interest for geographers. In 2014 archaeologists, relying on it, covered the same way as once did the land surveyor, who imposed them that very route which turned up after everything to be a false one: Yermak’s grave was never found. An attempt to substitute «memory place» for «place in the history» has failed again.
«Atlas of Tobolsk province, 1806», land surveyor V. Filimonov, Baish-aul, Begishevsky yurts, Yermak’s grave.
On Russian borrowings in Mansi dwelling (historiographic review after materials of XVIII c. — early XXI c.)
The article gives a review of ethnographic literature on history of investigating Mansi dwelling and Russian borrowings therein in XVIII — early XXI c. In accordance with a research area in the historiography, one could distinguish two periods, with each of them being characterized by a certain degree of knowledge on Mansi dwelling and Russian borrowings therein. The author cites dwelling classifications and typologies developed for each of the periods, considering basic hypotheses on its origin and development, describing its basic types as well as particulars of the interior and borrowed elements.
Mansi, dwelling, Russian borrowings, izba, shelter, hearth, chuval, window, nailless construction, bridle construction, log house execution, sacred shelf, loft, ceiling, home sanctuary.
«Voluntary death» and «new life» in Amguem tundra (Chukotka): a wish to escape into the world of the dead Tymnanantyn
The given article analyses a concrete real-life episode happened in Amguem tundra in 1951. V.G. Kuznetsova, a Leningrad ethnographer, who carried out a continuous field work among Amguem reindeer breeders in Chukotka du-ring three years (from 1948 to 1951), recorded that incident on pages of her diary. The story, which became the subject matter of this article, was as follows. In one family where V.G. Kuznetsova had been just residing most of the time, they expected a ritual of «voluntary death». The master of the nomad camp expressed his wish to be strangled by his kinsman. However, despite traditional notions of the Chukchi on undesirability to failure such a request, the ritual was delayed and then was cancelled at all. Addressing to social-and-historical context of that time and making micro-historical analysis of the particular real-life incident, the article suggests interpretation of decisions and actions of the immediate participants of those events. The author comes to a conclusion that in the period of expansion of Russian/Soviet culture, occurring in the second quarter of XX century, people tried to reconcile the reality of concrete situations with official ideology and, at the same time, with traditional notions and practices.
Siberia, the Chukchi, voluntary death, political resistance, sovietization, ritual.
Health care in the Far North of Tobolsk province (XIX — early XX c.c.)
The article reconstructs a process of shaping a system of medical service with population in the Far North, specifying certain facts. Subject to determination being a name of the first constant doctor in the history of Obdorsk. The author raises a question on differentiated assessment of health state among native peoples, correlating spread of epidemic diseases with growth of population density due to increasing a share of newly come population, both constant and temporary.
History of medicine, health care, Far North, doctors, Obdorsk health care district, non-Russian hospital, smallpox vaccination, native peoples.
«At present, religion is passing through a deep crisis»: a response of Soviet believers to antireligious propaganda
The article is devoted to life of believers in Soviet times. Subject to analysis being program statements of the Communist party devoted to antireligious struggle and treatment of religion on the whole, making a comparison between the declared statements and actual attitude toward believers. The author considers activity principles of professional atheists, specifying basic directions of atheistic propaganda: a sphere of education and culture. By the example of school education, it is shown in what way atheistic propaganda was performed, what was a teacher’s role in that process and in building relations between religious pupils and non-believers. The paper quotes examples of using cinema and fiction for creating an image of a believer. Subject to specification being two life strategies in religious environment: socialization in the society and isolation from it. The article also quotes examples of latent religiousness, particularly in the country, and examples of the state using religious manifestations on its own account. The author comes to a conclusion that believers managed to adapt to life under total antireligious propaganda.
Freedom of conscience, religious community, believers, atheistic propaganda, antireligious work, Protestants, Christians.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church and Lutheran pastors of the Russian Empire during the First world war
A military confrontation of the Russian Empire with Germany and Austria-Hungary in the First world war significantly affected a position of the Lutheran Church in the country. It became an object of discrimination policy of the state. Under such conditions, close attention of the powers was riveted to activity of Lutheran pastors. Very often their words and actions were judged as reprehensible, resulting in measures of repressive character. The article considers difficulties the Lutheran pastors encountered during the war, misdeeds they were condemned in, and types of punishment they were imposed.
Lutheran pastors, First world war, the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Russian Empire, xenophobia, discrimination, anti-German campaign.
Ryabogina N.Y., Ivanov S.N., Afonin A.S., Kisagulov A.V.
Paleobotanical and archaeozoological investigation on the site of Borki 1 (Low Ishim basin in the early I millennium B.C.)
The article illustrates investigation results regarding habitat of ancient population in the early I millennium B.C. and Middle Ages on the multi-layered site of Borki 1 in the Low Ishim basin, West Siberia. The paper aims at accumulating data, practising methodical approaches and introducing new palynological, carpological and archaeozoological materials into scientific circulation. The paper cites actual data on pollen composition from cultural layer in the first settlement stage in IX–VIII cc. B.C.; on pollen, plant seeds and fossil bones of mammals in the second settlement stage in VII–VI cc. B.C.; on seed composition in the third stage of the late IV and late VI cc. A.D. For the first time, subject to presentation for the region being data on composition of carbonized vegetation macro-residues extracted from cultural layer together with the Zhuravlevo complex and medieval materials. It is shown that in the early I millennium B.C. the site of Borki 1 was surrounded with birch woods. During every stage of the cape development, significant differences in the natural background have never been identified. However, distinctions of the local vegetation on the settlement testify to a noticeable scale of human transformation in the medieval vegetation cover and distribution of weed flora. Basing on analysis of fossil bones of the Zhuravlevo habitation stage, it is shown that the horse and small cattle were not numerous within their home herd, and the economy was based on household keeping of heavy cattle. At the same time, hunting big forest ungulates as well as fishing played a significant role in paleoeconomy of the population during the second habitation stage.
Habitat, carpological, palynological, archaeozoological analysis, Low Ishim basin, transitional time from Bronze age to Åarly Iron age.
Poshekhonova O.Ye., Afonin A.S., Kisagulov A.V., Gimranov D.O., Nekrasov A.Ye., Yakimov S.A., Yakimov A.S., Bazhenov A.I.
Certain elements of burial rite with North Selkups after data of paleoecological studies
The article is devoted to investigation of certain elements of burial rites with the Upper Taz Selkups, using methods of natural sciences. Subject to recording being preferences in the choice of wood for making grave constructions. In burials of XVII–XVIII cc., one comes across pinewood and in a few cases sprucewood, while in burials of XIX c. — pinewood and cedarwood. Relying on ethnographic data, we could state preservation of a tradition using pine during four centuries, while burial constructions of cedarwood and larchwood started to be made only in XIX c. The investigation results regarding residues of funeral feast and burial food gave an insight into composition and quantitative correlation of its elements. In the course of funeral repast they ate mainly fish, to a lesser extent, upland fowl and waterfowl, together with some squirrel and reindeer meat. Burial food consisted of fish, bird cherries, cowberries and others. Predominance of fish allows to conclude on its preference in their daily diet. As to clothing, footwear and utensils, those were mainly sewn of reindeer skins, which is confirmed by ethnographic data. At the same time, using fox and weasel for making fur coats was not reflected in the culture of North Selkups.
West Siberia, North Selkups, new time, grave constructions, burial food and funeral repast, clothing, investigation of vegetation and animal residues.
Studying of successions of plant communities from the settlement of Ufa II, using method of sporo-pollen analysis
The article presents results of sporo-pollen analysis regarding sediments of medieval settlement of Ufa II. We succeeded to reconstruct vegetation from the moment of development of the settlement territory up to the present time. Subject to specification being 19 stages of succession, characterizing a periodic recovery of plant communities (demutation) on anthropogenically disturbed areas. The vegetation of the settlement in the Subatlantic period of the Holocene was transformed in the following sequence: from a synanthropized edge of mixed small-leaved-and-broad-leaved forest — into open spaces occupied by synanthropic vegetation.
Settlement of Ufa II, reconstruction of vegetation, succession of plant communities, sporo-pollen analysis.
Ilyushina V.V., Yen'shin D.N.
Pottery industry with population of the Kozlov culture from Mergen' 7 settlement
The article considers a pottery complex of the Kozlov culture from Mergen' 7 settlement on the territory of the Low Ishim basin, in terms of methods of manufacturing dishes. Resulting from technical and technological analysis, subject to identification being pottery traditions of the settlement population. Basing on the undertaken analysis and correlation of the obtained data with the available data complex on the cross-border regions, they consider vectors of cultural and economic relations of the Kozlov population.
Low Ishim basin, Mergen' 7 settlement, Kozlov culture, vessel of «Makhandjarsky-and-Atbasarsky» look, pottery, technical and technological analysis.
Kaliyeva S.S., Logvin V.N.
The first dwelling from Pykhty I settlement
The article is devoted to introduction into academic circulation of excavation materials of a dwelling from Pykhty I Neolithic settlement. The authors describe the dwelling's constructive remains, tools, giving a statistical characteristic of the pottery collection. Subject to foundation being belonging of the settlement to a circle of sites of the Bystrinsky culture.
late Stone Age, Surgut Low Ob' basin, Bystrinsky culture, dating, ornament, tool complex.
Polidovich Yu.B., Usachuk À.N., Tsimidanov V.V.
Scrolls in ornamentation of the Timber-GRAVE culture
Subject to consideration being semantics of one of the symbols of the Timber-grave culture — namely, of a scroll. Departing from parallels found in pictorial traditions of different peoples, the authors assume that in the ornamentation of the Timber-grave culture scrolls designated sheep horns and, accordingly, could code notions associated with that animal — fertility, sexual potency, luck, wealth, health, generosity, etc.
timber-grave culture, pottery, ornament, semantics.
Degtyareva À.D., Neskorov À.V.
Rostovka buried treasure of bronze tools of the Bronze Age (cultural interpretation)
Subject to introduction into academic circulation being Rostovka buried treasure of bronze articles found by Rostovka village, Omsk Oblast'. A cultural belonging of articles from Rostovka, Predgornensky and, probably, Sokuluksky 2 buried treasures could be most likely associated with the Fedorovskaya culture, testified by the facts of obtaining sickles with bushes in burial and settlement complexes with Fedorovskaya pottery on the territory of East and Central Kazakhstan, Altai, and Low Tobol basin. The Rostovka complex, as besides also Predgornensky, Tyupsky, and Sokuluksky 2 buried treasures, should be attributed to a coexistence period of the Fedorovskaya and Alexeyevsko-Sargary cultures, i.e. to XV–XIV cc. B.C. The analytically investigated Low Irtysh buried treasures demonstrated quite a unified and developed methods of non-ferrous metal working — a quality solid casting of tin bronzes in one-sided and two-sided casting forms, as well as a skill to soften metal, increasing its ductility under long diffusion annealings.
Buried treasure, Bronze Age, bronze tools, Low Irtysh basin, Semirechye, Fedorovskaya culture.
Glushkova T.N., Masluzhenko D.N., Ryabinina Ye.A.
Textile materials from burial sites of the early Iron Age and Middle Ages from the forest-steppe Low Tobol basin
The article is devoted to analysis of textile materials from burial sites of the forest-steppe Low Tobol basin dated back to the early Iron Age (the Sakskaya and Sargatka cultures), and to Middle Ages. Those embrace a period from VII–VI cc. B.C. up to XII c. A.D. The obtained fragments of textile being clothing remnants or parts of bags and quivers. The obtained materials are correlated with textile from neighbouring regions. They reflect both local specificity of textile industry, and south import (silk materials of different quality and woolen cloth of only high quality).
Òextile materials, burial sites of Iron Age, forest-steppe Low Tobol basin.
Borzunov V.A., Chemyakin Yu.P.
A material complex and a dating problem of the Karym stage of the taiga Low Ob' basin
The article presents a general and individual description of articles, characterizing the Karym stage (culture) of the taiga Low Ob' basin. They determined difference in the object complex from the north and south Karym territories. The specificity of the Karym materials from the south taiga zone was determined by a cultural influence from local forest and steppe population upon migrants from the north. The analysis of metal articles and imported glass beads, as well as the results of radiocarbon tests allowed to specify the dating of the Karym stage: the border of III/IV — early VI c. A.D.
West Siberia, taiga, early Middle Ages, Karym stage, tools, arms, decorations.
A pottery complex from Pesyanka-1 bone bed (on chronology and periodization of the Yudino culture)
The paper gives a description of a pottery complex from Pesyanka-1 bone bed of the Yudino culture. Basing on analysis of materials of medieval sites from basins of Tura, Iset' and Tavda rivers, the author considers chronology and periodization of the Yudino culture. A chronological position of the Yudino culture is determined within limits of VII (possibly, late VI) — XIII cc. A.D. A smooth flow of Molchanovo ornamental traditions into Yudino ones allowed to treat complexes of VII–IX cc. A.D. as an early (Molchanovo) stage of the Yudino culture.
Åearly and developed Middle Ages, Yudino culture, chronology, periodization, Pesyanka-1 bone bed.
Borisenko À.Yu., Khudyakov Yu.S.
Evidences of Europeans of XV – early XVIII cc. on cultural distinctions of Turkic and Mongolian nomads in West and South Siberia
The article considers evidences from writings of the Europeans showing interest in North Asian region during the late Middle Ages and early New Time, which contain certain data on distinctions of traditional cultures with Turkic and Mongolian nomads on the territory of West and South Siberia. The Europeans were attracted into North Asia by prospects for development of fur trading and searching new trade routes into China and India. Their writings contain certain data on economic activities, material and spiritual culture, and military arts of Turkic and Mongolian peoples. Initially, data on Siberian ethnoses was collected by members of diplomatic missions from different European countries in Moscow. Later on, more reliable data was collected by the Europeans in the Russian service in North Asia. The most valuable information on cultures of Turkic and Mongolian peoples of Siberia was obtained by participants of the first scientific expedition in the early XVIII c. The data by the Europeans serve an important supplement to Russian written sources and ethnographic materials on cultural distinctions of nomadic ethnoses, populating northern regions of Central Asia.
West and South Siberia, Tartars, West Mongols, Russians, Europeans, data, distinctions of a traditional culture.
Khodzhajov T.Ê., Khodzhajova G.Ê.
On formation of an anthropological composition of the Kirghiz
Subject to consideration being craniological materials belonging to the Kirghiz. Studying and correlation of those with synchronous series from Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, Transurals, West and East Siberia, and Mongolia showed that the formation of an anthropological look of the Kirghiz was shared by Saka and Wusun from Tianshan and Alay, tribes from Altai and Kuznetsk basin, Turki and Uigurs from Tuva, Khakassia, and also «Yenisei» Kirghiz. A basic complex of features typical for the Kirghiz was formed during Turkic and Karakhanid ages in the south Issyk Kul region, as well as in Alay, Talas and Chui valleys.
Òhe Kirghiz, ethnos, craniological complex, antiquity, Middle Ages, modern age.
Kishkurno Ì.S., Zubova À.V.
Craniology of bearers of the Upper Ob' variant of the Kamenskaya culture after materials of Verkh-Suzun-5 burial site
The paper is aiming at introduction of craniological series from Verkh-Suzun-5 burial site into academic circulation, and consideration of its morphological distinctions against the background of population from the south part of West Siberian Plain and Altai-Sayan Mountains during the early Iron Age. The authors come to a conclusion on heterogeneity of this series. In its composition, one could distinguish a component of a Mongoloid origin with a highly flat facial cranial part, as well as a complex tending to Caucasian variants connected in its genesis with bearers of cultural traditions of the Andronovo community.
Kamenskaya culture, early Iron Age, paleoanthropology, craniology, Verkh-Suzun-5 burial site, Scythian time, West Siberia.
The population of the Golden Horde Khadzhi-Tarkhan town after craniological data
The article is devoted to studying cranial series of the Golden Horde time, obtained as a result of excavations in 1874 at Sharinny hillock and in Streltsy suburb — an archaeological site correlated with Khadzhi-Tarkhan town in the lower reaches of Volga. The basis of a craniological structure of the population represented by the investigated series is formed by a Caucasian component, mainly with racial distinctions of the Middle Asian interfluve. The intragroup comparative analysis showed that residents of Khadzhi-Tarkhan town and the majority of other Golden Horde towns from the Low Volga basin were morphologically quite alike.
Ðaleoanthropology, craniology, Golden Horde, Low Volga basin.
Ethnic ecology of Mansi sacred places
The article proposes considering the phenomenon of Mansi sacred places as an important aspect of ethnic ecosystem. The author tried to present certain relations connecting the Mansi sacred places with other components of the ecosystem (a sociocultural system, as interpreted by E. Wolf). Subject to demonstration being an active role in the shaping of ecological relations played by the sacred places in the environment of northern indigenous peoples.
Åthnic ecology, native residents, Mansi, sacred places.
The Selkups from Sovrechka village
The article is devoted to a problem of subethnic and ethnic affiliation regarding a small group of the Selkups residing in the vicinity of Sovrechka village in the north-west of Turukhansk District, Krasnoyarsk Krai, on the border side with Tyumen Oblast', being mixed with the Evenk population dominating here in size. Resulting from an undertaken investigation, it was established as follows. Firstly: the Selkups from Sovrechka, due to their geographical location and a number of cultural distinctions, would be more properly referred not to the Turukhansk (Baikha) Selkups, but to the Taz ones. Secondly: the opinion on the total assimilation of this group by the local and more numerous Evenks is erroneous. The Sovrechka Selkups tend to preserve their ethnic identity. Processes of assimilation and cultural influence among the mixed Selkup and Evenk population of Sovrechka do occur, but not so actively, as it would appear. These processes proceed in two reverse directions, and the influence of the Selkups on the Evenks stays at least highly competitive with that of the Evenks on the Selkups.
Selkups, identity, assimilation, cultural distinctions, reindeer breeding,
Vavlyo Nenyang (an experience of summarizing materials and compiling a genealogy)
Subject to summarizing and analysis being popular data about Vavlyo Nenyang — a leader of rebellions by the Nenets ans Khanty poor in 1830–1840, published in pre-revolutionary regional editions, historical and ethnographic investigations of the Soviet time, and in fiction. For the first time, basing on archive materials of XVIII–XIX cc. and the newest historical investigations, the author undertook an attempt to compile his genealogy, expressing an opinion on the outlaw character of his rebellions, and establishing a possible location of his exile and death.
Vavlyo Nenyang, Vauli Piettomin, Beryozov, Obdorsk, Samoyeds, Ostyaks, Nenets, Khanty, outlaw, popular hero, genealogy, Karacheya, arrest, exile.
Liskevich N.A., Masharipova A.Kh.
Practices of influencing weather and protection from natural disasters with Komi of West Siberia
The paper presents field materials describing practices of influencing weather and natural disasters with different ethnoareal Komi groups. On the territory of North Transurals the Izhma Komi, whose main occupation was reindeer breeding, used methods of influencing wind and rain, as well as prevention of avalanches. Agricultural Komi groups, inhabiting southern districts in the basins of Tobol and Irtysh, used methods of fighting with drought and triggering rain, or stopping lingering precipitation, withdrawing thunderstorm and whirlwind. Ritual actions were mainly conducted individually, while in cases of natural disasters (fire or drought) all Komi groups used to practice a collective attack. Basic methods included as follows: spells, using sharp objects, watering graves of drowned men, wetting a grave cross, tabooing certain actions, as well as using thanksgiving services, cross processions, church attributes, and others. At present, a meteorololgical magic with the Komi is almost out of practice, and certain methods come to mind only as children's games, though they are still keeping practice to pray for preferable weather.
Komi, meteorololgical magic, popular meteorology, calling rain, calling wind, stopping whirlwind, stopping fire.
Johann Lokkenberg – the last Tomsk pastor
The paper considers a history of Tomsk Lutheran community from the moment of its institutional formation in the second half of XIX century up to late 1920s. Basing on a life example of pastor J.À. Lokkenberg, subject to consideration being a repressive policy of the Soviet state regarding Lutheran pastors during 1920s, resulting in the total destruction of Lutheran church.
Soviet state, Lutheran community, Lutheran church, pastor, religious policy, repressions.
Fyodorov R.Yu., Fisher Ò.À., Petrov S.À.
Sociocultural and psycho-immune aspects of adapting forest Nenets children to urbanized living conditions
The article is devoted to studying an adaptation potential with children of indigenous ethnic minorities of the North under changing of their traditional environment in tundra into urbanized living conditions. The empirical basis of the paper is represented by materials of expeditions undertaken on the territory of Pur District, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, on which basis they realized investigations considering, in the integrated correlation, sociocultural and psycho-immune aspects of adapting children of forest Nenets to learning environment in boar-ding schools. The paper supports a hypothesis that social, psychological and physiological adaptation mechanisms in a life support system of an individual constitute a unified response mechanism to changes of both endo- and exo-factors.
Indigenous ethnic minorities of the North, forest Nenets, integrated anthropological investigations, sociocultural adaptation, psycho-immune processes, ethnopsychology, adaptation mobility, ethnocultural interactions.
Ryabogina N.Ye., Ivanov S.N., Afonin A.S.
New data on the habitat of Transural population in the early Middle Ages
The article focuses attention on analysis of new data regarding natural environment of Bakalsky population, attracting palynological data from Revda-2-1 fortified settlement and Revda-5 burial place in the Low Tobol basin (south-west sector of West Siberia). The new materials showed that in IV c. A.D. in the Low Tobol basin subject to prevalence being semi-open landscapes with massifs of birch forests and grass meadows. Presumably, those still bore traces of short-term episodes of steppe expansion, sporadically indicated at the turn of the eras. Approximately from V–VII cc. A.D., a vector of natural processes was changed — with a gradual change in the landscapes' look, manifested in the development of birch and pine forests in the Low Tobol basin. Further transformations, connected with intensification of swamping processes and occurrence of clean pine forests, were indicated starting from VIII c. A.D. Those changes served the vegetation response to decreasing continentality, as well as to reduction of frequency and duration of dry episodes in the Low Tobol basin, starting from the middle of the first millennium.
Òhe end of early Iron Age, early Middle Ages, palynological analysis, paleolandscapes, south of West Siberia.
A review of the book «Man and nature in the Ob' and Irtysh North (1917-1930): historical roots of modern ecological problems» by Ye.I. Gololobov
Subject to analysis being a monograph by a Surgut historian Ye.I. Gololobov. The reviewer supposes that the author has managed to represent an entire picture of the regional history regarding the interaction between man and nature, as well as the formation of rational nature management and environmental protection in the first third of ÕÕ c. The book itself stays an important landmark in the development of a new direction in the domestic science — an ecological history.
West Siberia, ecological history, nature management, environmental policy.
A review of the book: Schmidt V.A. In the light of personal knowledge of absolute truth: In two books / Templing V.Ya., Nikulina N.A, Compiling, introductory word and comments.
Subject to presentation being a review of a two-volume edition containing sources of personal origin, reflec-ting a biography, life creed and creative work of V.A. Schmidt — a religious provincial thinker. The documents show his attitude to epoch-making events of ÕÕ c., debating with officially accepted doctrines, protesting against ideological tendencies of that time, defending immutable ethical principles, religious and ethical behaviour foundations and metaphysical notions. The publication is accompanied by a detailed introductory article and scientific comments. It is of great importance for studying history of the Russian Germans and individual strategies of believers' behaviour under a total àntireligous regime.
Russian Germans, V.A. Schmidt, Soviet ideology, religious ethics, scientific atheism, correspondence, autobiography, individual protest.
Zakh V.A., Ilyushina V.V., Tigeyeva Ye.V., Yen’shin D.N., Kostomarov V.M.
A closed Zhuravlevsky complex on the hillfort of Borki 1 in the Low Ishim basin
The paper considers a closed complex of the Zhuravlevsky culture on Borki hillfort, basing on materials obtained from pit No. 23, construction 2, with pottery and heavy accumulation of molds for casting daggers, plate knives with a tear-shaped hole in the handle for suspending, Celt-axes with two loops, and arrowheads. They made a technological analysis of the dishes and molds. Basing on analogues, subject to determination being relative chronology of the Zhuravlevsky materials and their place among complexes of transition time and early Iron Age.
Low Ishim basin, hillfort of Borki 1, pottery, bronze articles and molds.
A pottery complex from the settlement of Mergen’ 7 (Low Ishim basin): description and interpretation
The paper considers a basic Neolithic pottery complex from the settlement of Mergen’ 7 at the north-east shore of the Mergen’ lake. The author undertakes analysis of typological-and-morphological features and distinctions of the pottery. Subject to determination being its cultural belonging in the context of problems regarding the Kozlov-and-Poludenkovsky antiquities of Trans-Urals, presuming în position of the given complexes in the chronological scheme of the Neolithic from the Low Ishim basin.
The Neolithic Age, Trans-Urals, Low Ishim basin, Mergen’ 7, pottery, typological-and-morphological characteristic, cultural-and-chronological interpretation, the Kozlov-and-Poludenkovsky antiquities, the Kozlov culture.
Pottery of early Bronze Age from the settlement of Shidertinsky 2 and burial site of Shiderty 10
Basing on analysis of a pottery collection, the paper considers questions of cultural attribution as to sites of early Bronze Age in the Middle Shiderta river (Central Kazakhstan). Resulting from the undertaken classification and statistical treatment of the material, the author determined several cultural components constituting the Shidertinsky pottery type. Basing on radiocarbon dates and comparative-and-typological method, subject to identification being lifetime of the sites and their relationship with synchronous cultural entities.
North-East Sary-Arka, early Bronze Age, the Krotovo-and-Yelunino entity, pottery, ornament, migrations, cultural genesis.
Non-ferrous metal ingots of the Petrovka culture (composition and manufacturing)
Subject to consideration being shape, chemical composition and manufacturing conditions regarding ingots of the Petrovka culture from South Trans-Urals. It is proved that products of the Trans-Urals metallurgic hearth could include copper refined flat-and-convex ingots of an irregular shape, cast from oxidized and sulphide ore, as well as sickle-shaped articles, and some crucible ingots. Bar-shaped ingots and approximately half of the articles obtained in crucibles with introduced alloys of tin, lead were imported from hearths of Rudny Altai or Central Kazakhstan.
Bronze Age, South Trans-Urals, ingots, copper, bronze, metallurgic hearth.
On a migration system of kin entities in ancient times (after complexes of late Bronze — early Iron Age in West Siberia)
Studying of pottery ornamentation regarding several cultures of late Bronze Age — early Iron Age (the Bar-khatovo, Irmen’, Baitovo, Sargatka cultures) allowed to identify certain local groups of settlements within the area of each of them. In ornamentation of the pottery ware in each of the groups, with a general set of ornamentation elements typical for the whole cultural area, subject to identification being dominating elements. Thereby, it was proposed that such settlement grouping could reflect one of the systems of kin migration in traditional entities — locally, «down the rivers, part of their stream way, or down inflows».
West Siberia, late Bronze Age, early Iron Age, archaeological culture, settlement, pottery, ornamentation.
Zakh V.A., Rafikova T.N.
A bronze comb from Low Tobol basin
The article considers a bronze comb acquired by the Ishim museum of local lore, and originating, most probably, from a robbed mound in Kurgan Oblast’. As to more accurate data on the location of the article, those are not available. The comb is unilateral, cast in a bilateral mold, probably, with welded horse figurines and a human head. Here also there are pictures of lions facing each other. The middle and upper parts of the comb are divided by two palm branches diverging from head and braided with a ribbon, terminating with two volutes at the corners of the handle, probably representing a styled floral ornament, wave crests (?) or styled bird heads, while the middle part is separated from the teeth with a circular ornament. Using and combining different images with no single composition in one and the same article, but at the same time popular in different time throughout a huge territory of Eurasia, could point to the craftsman’s orientation to a broad circle of customers. It is difficult to precisely delineate a probable territory of the comb manufacturing. We suppose that those could be workshops of Byzantium or Middle Asia, with the most probable time being a period from the end of early Iron Age up to developed Middle Ages.
Low Tobol basin, bronze comb, horse figurines, human head, picture of lions, Greek influence, Byzantium, Middle Asia, end of early Iron Age, early and developed Middle Ages.
Earrings from Sara burial site in Orenburg Oblast’
The article is devoted to golden earrings shaped like an unclosed ring with a burned-on biconical ornamentation from Sara burial site in East Orenburzhye. Genetically, this type goes back to earrings in the shape of a ring with a conical cap, which earliest pictures were fixed on Assyrian stone reliefs, while the main range zone being Sayans-Altai, where they occur in burial sites of early Scythian time, and were depicted on deer stones. Single findings of such earrings are famous in Central Kazakhstan and Low Volga basin. In the South Urals they found derivatives of Sayans-Altai earrings dated by later time. A biconical shape of the ornamentation of the earrings from Sara finds its analogs in Tuva and North Caucasus. The author thinks that the pictures and findings of earrings of the said type testify to complicated processes occurring in steppes of Eurasia during early Iron Age.
Early nomads, Scythian age, golden earrings, South Urals, Sayans-Altai, North Caucasus, West Asia.
On a functional purpose regarding constructions of the Bronze Age from the territory of West Orenburzhye
The investigations devoted to problems of the Bronze Age give special consideration to a description of constructions. The constructions left by the population of the Bronze Age quite distinctly reflect many aspects of household and social activity of that society. This work considers complexes from six settlements with found constructions of the Bronze Age on the territory of West Orenburzhye. The author made an attempt to classify those according to their functional purpose.
West Orenburzhye, Bronze Age, srubnaja culture, constructions, functional purpose.
Mkrtchan R.A., Pestryakov A.P., Grigoryeva O.M.
Craniological characteristics of a cranium (cerebral cranium) from burial sites of the Bronze Age
The article is devoted to studying of cranium metric parameters, describing its absolute value and shape, regarding ancient Armenian cranioseries from burial sites of the middle and late Bronze Age: Lchashen and Getashen (together with scanty crania from burial sites of Verin and Nerkin). Besides, subject to consideration being their characteristics against broader diachronic and territorial background.
Craniology, craniotypes, Bronze Age, Armenian cranioseries, chronological variation.
Radiologic investigation of deformed crania of the Golden Horde time from the territory of Low Volga basin (a paleopathological aspect)
The paper presents an attempt to study pathology of crania with unintended artificial deformation with representatives of the Golden Horde time, originating from sub-mound burial sites on the territory of the Low Volga basin. The analysis of the bone material was made using method of radiologic investigation in the coronal and lateral views. Totally, subject to investigation being 20 crania, with 16 ones of those with traces of artificial deformation, and 4 ones without traces of head modification. In the course of the investigation, they viewed crania shape, bone structure of cranial vault, state of cranial sutures, evidences of intracranial hypertension, symptoms of vascular abnormalities, and signs of endocrinopathy.
Low Volga basin, crania with artificial deformation, the Golden Horde period.
Trephined crania from burial sites of late Bronze Age and early Iron Age from the territory of Armenia
Subject to discovery and description being cases of trepanations with representatives of late Bronze Age and early Iron Age from the territory of Armenia. Totally, subject to investigation being 130 crania from 6 burial sites. Eight of the identified perforations are located on parietal bones, and one each perforation — on temporal and occipital bones. The crania belong to 6 males and 1 female, with one cranium not identified on grounds of sex, as well as to 1 child (aged 8–10). The males’ age: from 18 up to 60, the female’s age: 25–30. Symbolic trepanations — cuts on occipital bones — being identified with 15 individuals; while 3 individuals being fixed with surface abnormalities of the external bone compact, resembling «scraping». Besides, the investigated materials revealed two possible cases of posthumous trepanation.
Armenia, Bronze and Iron Ages, ritual, symbolic, medicinal trepanations, symbols.
Status and prestige in the aboriginal culture of the North-East of Russia (by the example of articles with uniform buttons)
The article describes a borrowing from a contacting community and assimilation of high-status metal articles — uniform copper buttons — in the culture of aborigines from the North-East of Russia (the Chukchi, Koryaks, and Evens). These articles in the initial (Russian) culture and society denoted a distinctive and high social position, since they were arranged on uniforms of military officials and civilians. Metal hetero-ethnic attributes of military power and civil government, including uniform buttons, were attractive for aborigines in the first place exactly as symbols of prestige. Penetrating into the aboriginal culture, those most often became the property of a cultic practice. At the same time, such things «overstepped» the domain of sacred things, playing a role of ornaments in everyday life, for all that not losing the property to emphasize a social prestige of their owners.
The Chukchi, the Koryaks, the Evens, North-East, metal, uniform buttons, prestige, sacrality, status, shaman practices, ornaments.
«Evil places» in sacral landscape of the Russian North (after materials of Lyeshukonsky, Mezen’ and Pinezhsky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast’)
Subject to investigation being «negative» sacral geography of the Russian North, namely, notions of «evil places». Subject to presentation being field data of North Russia ethnographic expedition of the Moscow University named after M.V. Lomonosov in Lyeshukonsky, Mezen’ and Pinezhsky Districts of Arkhangelsk Oblast’, as well as archival materials of the Moscow University and Russian State University for the Humanities. Basing on analysis of field data, subject to identification being a number of properties, typical for evil places and distingui-shing those from sacred places worshipped in the region.
Russian North, sacral geography, cultural landscape, sacred places, evil places, popular religion.
Adayev V.N., Rakhimov R.Kh.
Traditional culture of travelling with tundra Nenets
The article considers basic characteristics regarding traditional culture of travelling with tundra Nenets as a sphere in which mythological notions being closely intertwined with rational knowledge and practical experience. Subject to presentation being such components of this cultural sphere as communicative motivation, choice of time to start out, preparation to travelling, and travel itself. Basing on the investigation, they suggest a version of lacking a clear contradistinction in the Nenets tradition between a travelling person and a person staying at home.
Ethnography of peoples of the North, traditional beliefs, omens, customs of hospitality, social relations.
Abolina L.A., Fyodorov R.Yu.
Particulars of traditional culture with Semejsky from Transbaikalia
Backing up by results of expedition investigations, the article considers certain aspects of ethnocultural interactions of Semejsky — Russian old-believers from Transbaikalia — with representatives of other ethnic groups. Subject to investigation being household and cultural borrowings of Semejsky from Byelorussians, made under their dwelling on the territory of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in XVII–XVIII cc.
Semejsky, old-believers, agrarian migrations, Byelorussians, ethnocultural interactions.
Particulars of cultural identification through the opposition «organism — the environment», and their embodiment in a tradition of Siberian shamanism
The article actualizes a particular importance of the identification strategy «organism — the environment» in a shamanistic tradition of Siberian peoples. Differentiation between a human organism as a certain psychosomatic entity and the environment held a prominent place among cultural adaptation mechanisms with peoples of Siberia. Different parts of a human body determined most important characteristics of the existence, serving channels of communication between the worlds. The consideration of a shamanistic tradition through particulars of the opposition «organism — the environment» offers prospects to construct a worldview model built upon the hierarchy of vital principles correlating to this or that extent with a human organism.
Cultural identification, vital force, channels of communication.
Bashtannik S.V., Voyakin D.A., Buranbayev
Archeobotanical investigations of a citadel from a medieval
hillfort of Taraz in 2014
The article undertakes a paleocarpological
analysis of soil samples from excavations on the citadel of a medieval hillfort
of Taraz. The investigation allowed to describe composition of the used plants
during VII–XIX cc. Subject to investigation being possibilities of field crop
farming and gardening, as well as a role of local plant resources in the
cc., archeobotany, paleocarpological method.
investigations of the occupation layer of Ajtman settlement (Ustyrt
The article presents results on a
microbiomorphic analysis of the occupation layer of Ajtman settlement (Ustyrt
Using a different-type archaeological material, it was
shown that the development of the occupation layer was accompanied by a human
active supply of new material of aquatic genesis. Compositionally, the
microbiomorphic complex being broken down into two groups of objects differing
in destination, i.e. hearths and storage recesses. Besides, the presence of
hydrophilic biomorphs in the spectres allowed to expect the availability
of a desalinated water source near the settlement during its
Bronze Age of Kazakhstan, Ustyrt Plateau,
occupation layer, reconstruction, microbiomorphic analysis, phytolithes.
Bashtannik S.V., Voyakin D.A., Buranbayev R.N.
Archeobotanical investigations of a citadel from a medieval hillfort of Taraz in 2014
The article undertakes a paleocarpological analysis of soil samples from excavations on the citadel of a medieval hillfort of Taraz. The investigation allowed to describe composition of the used plants during VII–XIX cc. Subject to investigation being possibilities of field crop farming and gardening, as well as a role of local plant resources in the economy.
Hillfort of Taraz, VII–XIX cc., archeobotany, paleocarpological method.
Loshakova Ò.N., Gavrilov D.A.
Microbiomorphic investigations of the occupation layer of Ajtman settlement (Ustyrt Plateau)
The article presents results on a microbiomorphic analysis of the occupation layer of Ajtman settlement (Ustyrt Plateau). Using a different-type archaeological material, it was shown that the development of the occupation layer was accompanied by a human active supply of new material of aquatic genesis. Compositionally, the microbiomorphic complex being broken down into two groups of objects differing in destination, i.e. hearths and storage recesses. Besides, the presence of hydrophilic biomorphs in the spectres allowed to expect the availability of a desalinated water source near the settlement during its functioning.
Bronze Age of Kazakhstan, Ustyrt Plateau, occupation layer, reconstruction, microbiomorphic analysis, phytolithes.
Bagashev A.N., Tkachåv A.A.
III All-Russian conference «Man and North: anthropology, archàeology, ecology». Tyumen, 2015
Bersenyeva N.A., Yepimakhov A.V., Noskevich V.V., Fyodorova N.V.
Capabilities of synthesizing geophysical and archaeological information in the interpretation of excavation results (by the example of the Bronze Age settlement of Kamenny Ambar)
The article represents results of excavations and geophysical investigations at the Bronze Age settlement of Kamenny Ambar. They undertook correlation of the magnetic and GPR data with the excavation results. Using geophysical methods during excavations allows to increase the interpretation reliability of anomalies, connecting those with specific structures of archaeological sites. Subject to presentation being a reconstruction version of the settlement’s life history.
Bronze Age, archaeology of settlements, the Sintashta culture, fortification, archaeological geophy-sics, magnetic observation, ground penetrating radar (GPR).
Kovtun I.V., Neskorov A.V.
The chronology and mythology of Andronian vessels with square mouth
The paper presents the most comprehensive summary of uncommon Andronian vessels with square mouth. Basing on the radiocarbon dating from different territories of the Andronian area which gave suchlike dishes, as well as on certain metal articles and parallels in the Andronoid complexes, also on the conjugation with a tradition of roller ornamentation, the authors propose a probable absolute chronology of the Andronian pottery with square mouth. Subject to consideration being a problem of semantics and purpose of these vessels. By analogy with dog-sledge parallels and Ob-Ugrian ornamental correspondences, subject to reconstruction being the involvement of the Andronian vessels with square mouth in the myth-and-calendar ritualism as well as performance of the New Year festivities associated with the contents of the basic myth.
Andronian vessels, analogies, chronology, myth-and-calendar ritualism, dog-sledge, the Ob Ugrians, semantics of ornamentation, basic myth.
Batarshev S.V., Sergusheva Ye.A., Moreva O.L., Dorofeyeva N.A., Krutykh Ye.B.
The settlement of Olga-10 in the South-East Primorye: new materials to a discussion on the Margaritovka archaeological culture
The article considers topical problems of studying the Margaritovka archaeological culture in Primorye. Ba-sing on the investigations of materials from the settlement of Olga-10, subject to development being technical-morphological and typological criteria of the Margaritovka culture. The authors substantiate a chronological and stadial position of the Margaritovka complexes, drawing a conclusion on their belonging to a period of early paleometal. A strong emphasis is made on studying seeds of cultivated plants from the settlement of Olga-10, and a role of agriculture in the sustainment of the bearers of the Margaritovka culture.
Åarly paleometal, the Margaritovka culture, typology, chronology, periodization, agriculture, Primorye, Far East.
Yudina Ye. A.
The arrangement of the entrance-exit in dwellings of the Kulyogan cultural type as an element of a house-building tradition
By the example of sites of the Kulyogan cultural type, subject to consideration being a potential of using a planigraphic analysis for distribution of pottery fragments as an additional information source for reconstruction of residential layout elements. The author outlines ways of searching the local variations within the suggested cultural stereotype.
Òhe Kulyogan cultural type, Bronze Age, planigraphic analysis, house-building tradition, dwelling, inner layout, arrangement of the entrance-exit, local cultural differences.
«Symbolic» burials with early medieval Turks from Altai-and-Sayan region
The article presents the experience of summarizing data on «symbolic» burials with early medieval Turks from Altai-and-Sayan region. Subject to a detailed description being a tradition of making cenotaphs, specifying variants of such objects. Particular types of «symbolic» burials include «ritual» mounds which basic characteristic was making a common mound with no burial chamber underneath, as well as certain stone enclosures. The concentration of these objects during the early development stages of the Turkic culture reflects a process of deve-loping traditions in funeral rites with nomads in the late V — VI c. B.C.
Åarly Middle Ages Turks, Altai-and-Sayan region, «symbolic» burials, cenotaphs, «ritual» mounds, enclosures.
Borzunov V.A., Chemyakin Yu.P.
The Karym pottery from the taiga Low Ob’ basin
The article gives a description of four types of the Karym pottery. Three of them (I, II, IV) keep on a deve-lopment trend of the local Kulaj dishes, while one of those (III) being probably connected with the penetration of hunters-fishermen groups from East Siberia into the taiga Low Ob’ basin. The paper established the difference between the pottery from the north and south Karym territories. The specificity of the Karym materials from the south taiga zone was due to influence upon the migrants from the north by the culture of the local forest-steppe population.
West Siberia, taiga, early Middle Ages, the Karym stage, pottery.
Agricultural occupations of Tobolsk dwellers in XVII c. (after materials of archaeological investigations)
Agriculture played an important role in the sustainment of the Russian migrants in West Siberia. Basing on materials of archaeological investigations from Tobolsk, the article attempts to describe the conditions of rise and development of animal husbandry, crop farming and flour milling in XVII c. Using new data allowed to clarify certain details in the social and economic life of the ancient Siberian capital.
Tobolsk, XVII c., agriculture, animal husbandry, crop farming, crooked scythe, wooden plow, millstones.
V.V., Yevteyev A.A., Nikiforovsky Yu.A., Chetverikov S.I.
A probable case of chronic osteomyelitis basing on the anthropological material
of the Golden Horde time
The paper presents results of a paleopathological
investigation regarding a skeleton (female, age 16–18/20) of the Golden Horde
time from Boldyrevsky ground burial (Saratov Low Volga basin). A
pathomorphological and radiological investigation of the samples, as well as a
differential diagnostics allowed to propose the diagnosis of a nonspecific thigh
osteomyelitis in chronic form. The described case could be regarded as typical
both in the localization and morphology of the pathological changes. Òhe
Golden Horde, Saratov Low Volga basin, Boldyrevsky ground burial, paleopathology,
differential diagnostics, chronic osteomyelitis.
The investigation of shape
variations in acanthae of human cervical vertebrae basing on the osteological
data of Caucasians in XVIII–XX
The paper considers the influence of sex and geographical
origin upon the frequency of acanthae bifurcation in human cervical vertebrae.
The author undertook the correlation of the frequency occurrencies of this
character in four osteological series of Caucasians, attracting literature data.
It is shown that the bifurcation of acanthae was registered somewhat oftener
with male cervical vertebrae compared with females. The paper justifies a race
diagnostic value of this character for dividing groups of the Caucasian and
equatorial origin under investigating the complex of Ñ3–Ñ5
morphology of human skeleton, cervical vertebrae, variants of vertebra
structure, geographic variation.
Sarmatians of Romania according to anthropological data
The presented article considers paleoanthropological
materials relating to Sarmatians of Romania. The ar-ticle is a historiographic
investigation giving a review of the Romanian anthropological literature on
presence of Sarmatians on the territory of Romania. In the domestic
anthropology the investigation stays the first attempt dealing with presence of
Sarmatians on the territory of Romania. The Sarmatians of Romania were extremely
mixed in the anthropological respect. They included both purely Causasian crania
and those with a slight Mongoloid admixture. Certain Sarmatians of Romania
practised artificial head deformation. One of the crania from among the Romanian
Sarmatians manifested traces of trepanation. The anthropological types of
Romanian Sarmatians were similar to those from Low Don, the Ukraine, and Low
Volga basin. In the anthropological respect, the Sarmatians from Romania (with
artificially deformed crania) stayed closest to those from Low Don. The
Sarmatians of Romania included a considerable Alan component.
Don, the Sarmatians, the Alans, anthropological types, artificial deformation of
the skull, trepanation.
Kufterin V.V., Yevteyev A.A., Nikiforovsky Yu.A., Chetverikov S.I.
A probable case of chronic osteomyelitis basing on the anthropological material of the Golden Horde time
The paper presents results of a paleopathological investigation regarding a skeleton (female, age 16–18/20) of the Golden Horde time from Boldyrevsky ground burial (Saratov Low Volga basin). A pathomorphological and radiological investigation of the samples, as well as a differential diagnostics allowed to propose the diagnosis of a nonspecific thigh osteomyelitis in chronic form. The described case could be regarded as typical both in the localization and morphology of the pathological changes.
Òhe Golden Horde, Saratov Low Volga basin, Boldyrevsky ground burial, paleopathology, differential diagnostics, chronic osteomyelitis.
The investigation of shape variations in acanthae of human cervical vertebrae basing on the osteological data of Caucasians in XVIII–XX cc.
The paper considers the influence of sex and geographical origin upon the frequency of acanthae bifurcation in human cervical vertebrae. The author undertook the correlation of the frequency occurrencies of this character in four osteological series of Caucasians, attracting literature data. It is shown that the bifurcation of acanthae was registered somewhat oftener with male cervical vertebrae compared with females. The paper justifies a race diagnostic value of this character for dividing groups of the Caucasian and equatorial origin under investigating the complex of Ñ3–Ñ5 vertebrae.
Ðaleoanthropology, morphology of human skeleton, cervical vertebrae, variants of vertebra structure, geographic variation.
Sarmatians of Romania according to anthropological data
The presented article considers paleoanthropological materials relating to Sarmatians of Romania. The ar-ticle is a historiographic investigation giving a review of the Romanian anthropological literature on presence of Sarmatians on the territory of Romania. In the domestic anthropology the investigation stays the first attempt dealing with presence of Sarmatians on the territory of Romania. The Sarmatians of Romania were extremely mixed in the anthropological respect. They included both purely Causasian crania and those with a slight Mongoloid admixture. Certain Sarmatians of Romania practised artificial head deformation. One of the crania from among the Romanian Sarmatians manifested traces of trepanation. The anthropological types of Romanian Sarmatians were similar to those from Low Don, the Ukraine, and Low Volga basin. In the anthropological respect, the Sarmatians from Romania (with artificially deformed crania) stayed closest to those from Low Don. The Sarmatians of Romania included a considerable Alan component.
Romania, Low Don, the Sarmatians, the Alans, anthropological types, artificial deformation of the skull, trepanation.
«Ground landmarks» and «road landmarks»: earth-based natural and artificial objects in the system of spatial orientation with the tundra Nenets
The paper presents a set of earth-based natural and artificial landmarks used by the Nenets, together with practice of their learning and use. Subject to consideration being a double-level landscape knowledge among the tundra Nenets, suggested by K.V. Istomin and M.J. Dwyer, where the upper level allows moving easily across the territory, while the lower one contains a detailed landscape knowledge necessary for reindeer breeding. The author draws a conclusion that for the tundra Nenets rivers and hills stayed the top priority and universal natural landmarks.
Spatial orientation, tundra Nenets, north landscapes, conventional signs, roads.
Agapov M.G., Korandej F.S.
Map of Tyumen Oblast as a symbol: geographical toposes in the popular cartography of the region, 1964–2014
The article investigates a conventionalized cartographical picture of Tyumen Oblast. Throughout several decades this symbol has been actively used in various contexts, including administrative practices, advertisement, mass-media, urban and country landscape. The article aims at the interpretation of the data array, including over one hundred and fifty conventionalized pictures of the map of Tyumen Oblast used as painted slogans, logotypes and emblems since 1960s up today. The logic of production and use of iconic maps in mass culture is described using a concept of the popular and geographical topos. The sustainable models followed by the pictures included into the investigated data array represent a response of mass culture to urgent problems of the regional character. The data array collected by the author reflects the history of these challenges from view point of the anonymous authors, using sustainable models for creation of geographical symbols, aiming at demonstrating a certain type of the regional identity.
Popular geographical topos, map of Tyumen Oblast, regional identity.
«Who are we and where is our Heimat?»: ethnical identity of the Russian Germans at the turn of XX–XXI cc. (according to materials from Chelyabinskaya Oblast’)
The article is devoted to ethnical identity of the Russian Germans according to materials from Chelyabinskaya Oblast’ during the post-Soviet period. Basing on the regional periodicals, archival data, verbal stories and depth interviews, subject to proposal and description being models of ethnical identity of the Russian Germans, such as assimilation, symbiosis, migration. Besides, the author describes the activity of German cultural and education centres, quoting statistics of the external migration processes with the involvement of the Germans from this region.
Åthnical identity, Russian Germans, Germans at the Urals, Chelyabinskaya Oblast’.
Customs and rites connected with birth of a child among Siberian Tartars from the south of Tyumen Oblast
Basing on field ethnographic materials, subject to reconstruction being traditional maternity rites with Siberian Tartars from the south of Tyumen Oblast’. The author describes customs and rites connected with a female antepartum and postpartum period, as well as with birth of a child and his early life period, quoting proverbs and sayings reflecting the attitude of Siberian Tartars to children.
Maternity rites, Siberia Tartars, pregnancy, midwife, delivery, purification, socialization, visiting a new mother, name, circumcision.
Pre-Islamic elements in the burial rites with Kazakhs from Pavlodar low Irtysh basin
The article considers pre-Islamic elements in the burial rites with Kazakhs from Pavlodar low Irtysh basin. Basic sources are presented by archaeological and ethnographic data. The pre-Islamic elements include as follows: alastau rite (purification with fire), the availability of animal bones and everyday articles in grave holes, the erection of stone sculptures, suyeke tusu (the rite of body washing), fidiya rite (making satisfactions for sins of the departed), zhoktau (mourning).
Kazakhs, Pavlodar low Irtysh basin, burial rite, pre-Islamic elements and beliefs, Islam.
Borodovsky A.P., Baulo A.V.
On technology of making lead ritual attributes with Ob’ Ugrians
The investigation of quite a representative collection of lead ritual castings allowed to reconstruct the particulars of their making in the single-wing and double-wing molds, discovering texture traces of wooden molds on their surface. A comparative approach in the surface description of the lead ritual castings, together with results of their experimental simulation, offers new possibilities in the investigation of these traditional and exclusive objects of ritual casting from West Siberia.
Ritual casting, lead, West Siberia, ethnographic collections, experimental simulation.
Gravestones with Yakuts from Central Yakutia in the late XIX — early XX c.
Basing on materials of gravestones with Yakuts and Russian peasants from central areas of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in the late XIX — early XX c., the article undertakes a comparative analysis regarding complexes of symbolic images, tracing the dynamics of these complexes depending on the territory and time of erecting the monuments. The appearance of stone gravestones with Yakuts stays a novation under the influence of a Christian tradition. The predominance of Christian symbols on the gravestones testifies to deep penetration of Christianity into the mentality of Yakuts from Central Yakutia by the end of XIX c.
Yakuts, gravestones, novations, Christianity.
Smekalova T.N., Lisetsky F.N.,
Chudin A.V., Garipov
The investigation of spatial organization of ancient land-use in North-West
Crimea using geoarchaeological methods
Resulting from the investigations in North-West Crimea (on
Tarkhankut peninsula in the vicinity of Yevpatoria (ancient Kerkinitida) using
multidisciplinary (geoarchaeological) approaches, subject to determination being
a topological structure and metric parameters in the system of land-use for
cultivating grain crops dated back to the middle of IV c. B.C. For the first
time, they discovered and thoroughly investigated vineyards of the second half
of IV — early III c. B.C. for which spatial organization they used the
Chersonesos individual space modulus. Subject to determination being the
conjugacy of two homesteads and their land allotments, forming complete economic
complexes, which expands a notion on organization forms in the remote Chora of
Àncient land-use, ancient arable farming, geoarchaeology,
North-West Crimea, space photographs, magnetic survey, first tillage implements,
Chersonesos, Kerkinitida, remote Chersonesos Chora.
Smekalova T.N., Lisetsky F.N., Marinina Î.À., Chudin A.V., Garipov À.S.
The investigation of spatial organization of ancient land-use in North-West Crimea using geoarchaeological methods
Resulting from the investigations in North-West Crimea (on Tarkhankut peninsula in the vicinity of Yevpatoria (ancient Kerkinitida) using multidisciplinary (geoarchaeological) approaches, subject to determination being a topological structure and metric parameters in the system of land-use for cultivating grain crops dated back to the middle of IV c. B.C. For the first time, they discovered and thoroughly investigated vineyards of the second half of IV — early III c. B.C. for which spatial organization they used the Chersonesos individual space modulus. Subject to determination being the conjugacy of two homesteads and their land allotments, forming complete economic complexes, which expands a notion on organization forms in the remote Chora of Chersonesos.
Àncient land-use, ancient arable farming, geoarchaeology, North-West Crimea, space photographs, magnetic survey, first tillage implements, Chersonesos, Kerkinitida, remote Chersonesos Chora.
Preliminary results of a comprehensive analysis of coloured pigments in the mural paintings of Kapova cave
The paper quotes preliminary investigation results regarding samples of coloured pigments in the mural paintings of Kapova cape, obtained using electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis, Raman spectroscopy, polarization microscopy, as well as photography in the visible and infra-red band. It is hematite composing the main chromatic component of all colours. It was demonstrated that the pictures were made in red colours which shade depends on hematite particle sizes and presence of coal.
Upper Paleolithic, mural paintings, Paleolithic painting, Kapova cave, mineral pigments.
Stefanova N.K., Stefanov V.I.
Zavodoukovsk XIII settlement of the Tashkovo culture
The article presents excavation results regarding Zavodoukovsk XIII site located in the lower reaches of the Uk river in Tyumen Low Tobol basin. The most part of the obtained antiquities refers to the Tashkovo culture of the Bronze Age. Subject to investigation being remains of three typical dwellings, with obtaining sets of typical dishes, sinkers, fragments of a crucible and mace. Subject to opening being two late burial constructions.
Tyumen Low Tobol basin, settlement, Tashkovo culture, Bronze Age, Eurasian metallurgic province, dwellings, pottery, V-shaped sinkers, mace, crucibles.
Tkachev A.A., Ilyushina V.V.
On certain distinctions of the Koptyaki antiquities from the sub-taiga Low Tobol basin
The article considers materials of the Koptyaki culture from the settlement of Os’kino Boloto on the territory of Tyumen Low Tobol basin. Subject to presentation being data on particulars of constructions, an inventory complex, and pottery. The paper discusses questions of genesis and dating of the Koptyaki culture on the territory of the sub-taiga Low Tobol basin.
Tyumen Low Tobol basin, settlement of Os’kino Boloto, the Koptyaki culture, dwellings, inventory, pottery, technical and technological analysis, ornamentation.
On genesis of Andronoid antiquities from the forest-steppe Tobol and Ishim basin in the II millennium B.C.
The article is devoted to consideration of development questions regarding Andronoid traditions in the forest-steppe part of Tobol and Ishim basin. The author attempts to synchronize cultures of the Andronovo and Andro-noid circle. The paper sets up a hypothesis of two parallel trends in the culturogenetic processes which, under close interrelation, were noted for substantial differences.
Òhe Pakhomovo culture, the Tashkovo culture, the Koptyaki culture, traditions, household, culturogenesis, chronology.
Zakh V.A., Zimina O.Yu.
Early complex of the Krasnoozersky culture from the settlement of Mergen 2 in the Low Ishim basin
The article considers new materials on a transition period from Bronze to early Iron Age from the settlement of Mergen 2 in the Low Ishim basin. The investigations showed that the materials of this and other such settlements investigated in the Ishim valley, being noted for distinctions of the early stage of the Krasnoozersky culture from the Ishim and Irtysh interfluve.
Low Ishim basin, Mergen’ lake, settlement of Mergen 2, Krasnoozersky culture, pottery, inventory.
Matveyeva N.P., Anoshko O.M.
On prospects of archaeological investigation regarding wintering grounds of Yermak’s forces
The article considers basic points in the study of Yermak’s Siberian march. Basing on the analysis of Siberian chronicles, the paper indicates controversial questions of this event (i.e. chronology, marching route, localization of battle sites and wintering grounds). Subject to description being prospects of archaeological investigation regarding wintering grounds of Yermak’s forces, by the example of a legendary Karachin settlement.
Òhe initial stage in the Russian colonization of Siberia, chronology of Yermak’s march, places of the Cossacks’ battle sites and wintering grounds.
Rafikova T.N., Berlina S.V.
Fortifications of the medieval hillfort of Lastochkino Gnezdo 1: on the problem of cultural contacts
The paper quotes excavation results regarding fortifications of the hillfort of Lastochkino Gnezdo 1, conside-ring the appearance of rampart and tower fortifications during the early Iron Age and Middle Ages in West Siberia, and possible ways of their origin.
Rampart, tower, entrance, fortifications, early Middle Ages, the Bakal culture.
Anoshko O.M., Ignatov S.V.
Numismatic and sphragistic materials from the Bazarnyi excavation in Tobolsk
Subject to consideration being numismatic and sphragistic materials from the Bazarnyi (market place) excavation laid at the market place of the lower suburb in Tobolsk. The paper gives a detailed description of the coins, determining place of their coinage, time of issue, nominal value, as well as distinctions of their planigraphic and stratigraphic distribution in the pit. The analysis of lead and copper seals, as well as stamps on the glassware, chinaware and crockery allowed to enlarge ideas of traded goods and their manufacturers.
Tobolsk, lower suburb, market place, coins, counters, lead and copper seals, stamps on the glassware, chinaware and crockery.
Slepchenko S.M., Poshekhonova O.Ye.
Pathological manifestations in the paleoanthropological material of early Middle Ages from the burial place of Ustyug-1
The article presents the outcome of a paleoanthropological investigation of osteological material from the early medieval burial place of Ustyug-1 of IV–VI cc. A.D. It is determined that health state of the people buried in that place was quite satisfactory, as evidenced by a small number of revealed pathologies. Lack of bone inflammations, with the only case of the minor manifestation of cribra orbitalia, points to acceptable sanitary conditions of that dwelling place and pretty high body resistance, which is difficult to ensure without proper meal, etc. Workloads for males did not exceed physiological ones, while for females they recorded both minor and major ones, which might point to their different social status. Subject to observation being similarity in the extent and type of physical loads with the Sargatka group of early Middle Ages, which did not exceed threshold values and oftener fell on upper limbs. A tradition of changing head shape with that population group might be due to high frequency of intracranial hypertension and craniosynostosis with babies. The availability of traumas of axial skeleton and cranial vault might point to tense intertribal situation abounded with conflicts. At the same time, almost total absence of traumas in the facial part might point to favourable intragroup relations.
West Siberia, early Middle Ages, paleopopulation, paleopathology, health state, physical activity.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Babayan F.S., Akopyan N.G., Zhamkochyhan A.S.
On decapitation in Dvin: anthropological examination of medieval crania from Armenia
The paper undertakes life and death reconstruction of three individuals. On the skulls, they observed crippling of cranial bones due to traumatic consequences. All the three investigated persons were found with infectious diseases (lepra, periostitis, antritis). The social stratum they belonged to suffered a shortage of necessary food. People with physical defects and infectious diseases were regarded by the society as defective creatures, thus, not deserving attention.
Armenia, Dvin, Middle Ages, decapitation, traumas, infectious diseases.
Dermatoglyphics with Kazan’ Tartars
The article presents basic results of a dermatoglyphic investigation with Kazan’ Tartars. The investigation uses data on prints of both hands for 1310 persons (928 males and 382 females). Subject to determination being greater heterogeneity of the female samples compared with the male ones. The paper selected basic dermatoglyphic variants. For the first time the author makes an attempt of diachronic analysis of dermatoglyphic data.
Kazan’ Tartars, ethnic dermatoglyphics, peoples of the Volga basin, ethnic history.
Golovnyov A.V., Abramov I.V.
Reindeer and gas: development strategies of Yamal
The Yamal peninsula has become a place of meeting and competition of at first sight incompatible technologies of reindeer breeding and gas-extraction. This is expressed in crossing of two longest peninsula roads: a traditional nomadic way of the Nenets from Khaen to Yamal part, and a railway from «mainland» to Bovanenkovo gas condensate field. The industry keeps changing Yamal’s look in accordance with a new design of the environmental management and communications, while the Nenetz reindeer breeders tend to preserve a traditional rhythm of migrations and using pastures. Yamal experiences the competition of two different development strategies which conductors being traditional and technological societies. The both parts are incresing pressure upon tundra, thus undermining ecological stability in the region. It is not separate gas fields and projects that need ecological examination, but the whole Yamal as an integrated ecosociosystem into which a nomadic life of the reindeer breeders is inserted. The Nenets big herded reindeer breeding stays impossible without preserving the common space of trans-Yamal routes. Under such conditions, the ethnological examination becomes a method minimizing consequences of cultural collision and conflict competition.
Yamal peninsula, reindeer breeding, Nenets, nomads, migrations, ecological examination, anthropogenic impact, ecosociosystem.
Transformations of ethnic environmental management in the reindeer breeding of the early XÕ c. (by the example of North-Even District, Magadan Oblast’)
In the early XX c., ethnic transformations among North East reindeer breeders were mainly conditioned by inter-ethnic contacts under which influence the life style of the indigenous people suffered certain changes, i.e. adapted to re-created ethnocultural conditions. However, in the process of adaptation different ethnic groups displayed considerable differences, resulting in the origin of new ethno-local groups.
Traditional environmental management, the Koryaks, the Evens, paleo-Asian method of reindeer breeding, Tungus type of reindeer breeding
Textile attributes of a bear festival at holy places of North Mansi in the early XXI c.
The article systematizes textile attributes of a bear festival discovered under expedition investigations at holy places of North Mansi. The author gives a description of headwear, robes and mittens, considering methods of wearing shawls, and details of mittens’ ornamentation. It is indicated that all the obtained objects were found in home sanctuaries. It is determined that it was headwear quantitatively prevailing among the attributes, which testifies to significance of the function those performed in the Mansi sacral ritual practice.
Mansi, Mansi traditional clothing, bear festival, traditional textile, ritual robe, ritual fur-cap, ritual mittens, ritual methods of tying shawls.
Fishing traditions with Komi from the Low Tobol basin
The article considers fishing traditions with Komi residing on the territory of the Low Tobol basin. It is observed that fishing was of a subsidiary significance, with catches mainly used for family self-provision. Following the materials of field investigations, the author shows fishing seasonal distinctions, fishing methods, fishing gear, as well as their development trends. Subject to description being modern features of using fish production, its processing and preparation.
Fishing, Komi, Low Tobol basin, fishing traps, fish production.
Death rate processes with the Komi-Zyryan adult population from Ivanovo Volost’, Yalutorovsk Uyezd in the late XIX – early XX c.
Basing upon data of parish registers, subject to analysis being age groups of the deceased, dynamics of death rate in different life periods, and common causes of death with the Komi-Zyryan adult population from Ivanovo Volost’, Yalutorovsk Uyezd, Tobolsk Province in the late XIX — early XX c.
Komi-Zyryans, death rate, Yalutorovsk Uyezd, Ivanovo Volost’, Tobolsk Province.
Klueva V.P., Poplavsky R.O.
Changes of a Protestant landscape of the (post) Soviet province: international relations of the Tyumen churches in the late 80th — the beginning of the 90th of the XX c.
The article is devoted to analysis of religious situation in Protestant community of the Tyumen region since the end of the 1980th to the middle of the 1990th. The attention to the international participation in emergence new and maintenance of already existing communities, including believers from the different countries, including the former Soviet republics is paid. The authors determine some areas of work: humanitarian aid, distribution of religious literature, help in receiving religious education, evangelical activity and creation of churches.
Protestantism, missionaries, international relations, religious community, religious education, Tyumen region.
Book review: «Removed as an anti-Soviet element»: the Kalmyks in the state policy (1943–1959 )» by A.S. Ivanov
The review analyzes a new study by a Siberian historian À.S. Ivanov «“Removed as an anti-Soviet element”: the Kalmyks in the state policy (1943–1959)». The reviewer supposes that this publication disproves the former concepts on nature of the Kalmyks’ deportation under Stalinism.
«Anti-Soviet element», deportation of peoples, the Kalmyks, policy of the population, special settlement.
On character of cultural interaction between the population of Yamnaya culture
from steppe Volga-and-Urals region and that of Afanasyevskaya culture from
On character of cultural interaction between the population of Yamnaya culture from steppe Volga-and-Urals region and that of Afanasyevskaya culture from Altai-and-Sayans region
The article considers one of debatable questions in the archaeology of West Siberia — the genesis of Afanasyevskaya culture. Subject to consideration being different viewpoints, placing emphasis on materials of Yamnaya culture from Volga-and-Urals interfluve. The author comes to a conclusion that the viewpoint on genesis of Afanasyevskaya culture from the territory of steppes of East Europe keeps its timeliness and finds justification in the latest discoveries.
Åarly Bronze Age, Afanasyevskaya culture, Yamnaya culture, factors of interaction.
Degtyateva A.N., Kovaleva V.T., Kuzminykh S.V.
Features of non-ferrous metal working of Tashkovo culture tribes of the Low Tobol basin
In clause generalization of the received analytical data on structure, technologies of non-ferrous metal, petrography of melting capacities Tashkovo cultures Bottom Tobol epoch of bronze. The basic part of fine color products in the form of ingots, fine instruments is made of artificial alloys — tin, tin-arsenic bronze. The most probable initial centers of delivery of metal — Ore Altai, making which centers had a doubtless priority by way of transportation tin and tin-arsenic bronze, and also powerful metallurgical Sintashta and the Petrovka centers of the south High Urals. The center Tashkovo of metal industry was low-power metalcutting, working on imported raw material which masters only have started to get acquainted with technology swimming trunks of metal owing to activity of adjacent tribes.
Tashkovo culture, West Siberia, Bottom Tobol, Bronze Age, processing of non-ferrous metal, metallurgical contacts.
Practice of posthumous disturbance into graves in cultures of early and developed Bronze Age in West Siberia: archaeological facts and ethnographic parallels
The article raises interpretation problems relating graves with traces of ancient posthumous penetration, gi-ving a general description of basic features as to the disturbed burials of the Yelunino and Fyodorovo culture. The paper gives examples of ethnographic evidences of penetration into burials, assuming possible differences in the traces of one or the other penetration and mass character of using different practices which could be fixed archaeologically.
The Yelunino culture, the Fyodorovo culture, burial and posthumous rites, disturbed burials, ancient penetrations into a grave, ethnographic parallels.
On the problem of srubnaya-and-Alakul contacts (after investigation data of ornamental traditions regarding pottery from Olayir settlement in Trans-Urals)
The article is devoted to problems of Srubnaya-and-Alakul contacts in South Trans-Urals. The author suggests an approach to this question, using the analysis of stylistic ornamental traditions. The method has been tried on the pottery material of Srubnaya, Alakul and Srubnaya-and-Alakul groups of the population residing at Olayir settlement. The author undertook a description of ornamental traditions, their quantitative analysis and calculation of the coefficient of their similarity with cultural groups identified at that site. Resulting from the analysis, subject to identification was early beginning of interaction processes and their high activity on that territory during a developed period of existence of Srubnaya and Alakul cultural-and-historical communities.
South Urals, late Bronze Age, ornamental traditions, cultural contacts, Srubnaya cultural-and-historical community, Alakul cultural-and-historical community.
Finding of a Bronze Age mould from Stary Katysh
The article presents a mould for making a plug bit found by the settlelment of Stary Katysh in the basin of the Konda river (a tributary of the Low Irtysh). Subject to clarification being a possible belonging of this object to famous pottery complexes of the Bronze Age. The paper being focused on continuity of metal production with foundry workers from the Konda basin and relations formed between the community of roll pottery cultures, the population of Andronoid conglomerations in West Siberia, and the taiga fishermen and hunters during the final stage of the Bronze Age in the West Asian (Eurasian) metallurgical province.
The Barkhatovo culture, plug bit, mould, the continuity of roll pottery cultures, Stary Katysh, the Suzgun culture, Suzgun-Loz’va (Luchkino) complexes.
On two habitats of thePazyryk culture from mountain Altai
The article proposes a division of the Pazyryk culture sites from steppe valleys of mountain Altai according to landscape-and-geographical principle — along the Katun’-and-Chuya ridge into west and east habitats. A review of basic sites within the limits of the two habitats revealed differences in their number, location and burial inventory, confirming the existence of the two habitats.
Mountain Altai, the Pazyryk culture, habitat of sites, landscape-and-geographical principle.
Tsembalyuk S.I., Berlina S.V.
A complex of the early Iron Age from Likhachevo settlement in the Low Ishim basin
Subject to publication being materials of excavations undertaken by UAE in 1964 and in 1966 at Likhachevo settlement — the only fully investigated site of the early Iron Age in the Low Ishim basin. The investigation of the settlement resulted in total studying of fortifications and dwellings, obtaining a representative pottery material.
Òhe beginning of the early Iron Age in West Siberia, Low Ishim basin, the Baitovo culture, reconstruction, fortified settlement, fortifications, dwellings.
Burials of «Kharinsky» type from the territory of North Priuralye (or another attempt to search the «Ugrian trace»)
The article represents another attempt to search the «Ugrian trace» in archaeological cultures of Priuralye. Using instruments of mathematical statistics (hierarchial cluster analysis), the author undertook verification of a hypothesis on the availability of Sargatka and Trans-Urals cultural influence in materials of mound burials of Kharinsky type in the Upper Prikamye and North Priuralye. According to results of statistic checking, the hypothesis did not get its confirmation. The sites of Kharinsky type demonstrated stable proximity to late Sarmatian necropolises from South Bashkiria.
The Great migration, mounds of Kharinsky type, cluster analysis, Ugrians.
A dwelling and household in the Stone Age of Trans-Urals and North of West Siberia: perspectives of socioeconomic reconstruction
The article considers an informative potential of early dwellings from forest zone of Trans-Urals and North of West Siberia aiming to undertake socioeconomic reconstructions, using a microeconomic notion of «household». Subject to proceeding, being methods of corresponding investigations oriented at broader application of archaeological, natural-climatic and topographical contexts accompanying the dwellings.
Dwelling, household, production group, family, community, socioeconomic reconstruction, the Neo-lithic of Trans-Urals and North of West Siberia.
German P.V., Kazakova Ye.A.
New materials on the Tsepanskaya culture of North Priangarye (burial 13 from Sergushkin-3 burial ground)
The article cites investigation results regarding a burial of the early Iron Age from North Priangarye (burial 13 from Sergushkin-3 burial ground). The authors give a detailed description of archaeological and anthropological material. Using a craniometric analysis, they determined a Mongoloid anthropological type of the buried person. By analogy with famous North Angara complexes, the burial was attributed to the Tsepanskaya culture. Regar-ding the most stable component of the Tsepanskaya burials — i.e. horny clips — they registered a broad range of analogies from North-West Siberia. Basing on the obtained radiocarbon date together with an iron finding in the grave, burial 13 from Sergushkin-3 burial ground was dated by IV–II cc. B.C.
North Priangarye, early Iron Age, the Tsepanskaya culture, burial.
Paleoanthropological series from Tanaj-12 burial ground and genesis of the population of the Korchazhkinskaya culture from Kuznetsk basin
The article is devoted to studying genesis of the population of the Korchazhkinskaya culture from Kuznetsk basin, basing on craniological and odontological characteristics of the series from Tanaj-12 burial ground. The author comes to a conclusion on a possible participation in its formation of the Andronoid population from Tomsk Low Ob’ basin, migrated to the territory of Kuznetsk basin under pressure of an unfavourable demographic situation.
Òhe Korchazhkinskaya culture, late Bronze Age, craniology, odontology.
Changing of a gene pool with northern populations: «the dawn of ethnoses» or formation of a new adaptive group?
An intensive inter-ethnic mixing of northern native population could be treated both as a threat to the existence of historically shaped gene complexes and a favourable process leading to enriching and increasing the diversity of the gene pool. The problem being considered in terms of concepts of «economic genotype» and «framing of niches», by the example of APOE, LCT and VDR genes. It is suggested that the native northern peoples of Russia being object to formation of a metabolic complex adequately meeting requirements of new living conditions and nutrition.
Native population, economic genotype, framing of niches, sickness rate, APOE, LCT, VDR, lactase, vitamin D.
Cattle production in wild areas of south taiga: the experience of new settlers from the Middle Low Irtysh basin in the first half of ÕÕ c.
The article considers contents and mechanism of adaptation processes in the cattle production economy with new settlers (Russians, Chuvashes, Poles) from south taiga territories remote from the main river arteries. Subject to introduction being questions of animals’ delivery, fodder supplies, protection from blood-sucking insects, presence of wild animals, home veterinary medicine, care of breeding bulls. The author comes to a conclusion on an important role of the peasant cattle production in the shaping of an economically reliable household complex which ultimately became the common one both for settlers and local northern peoples.
Òaiga cattle-breeding, new settlers, economic adaptation, Demyanka, Turtas, Middle Low Irtysh basin.
Particulars of traditional wedding ceremonies with Siberian Tartars from the south of Tyumen Oblast
Basing on analysis of field materials, subject to consideration being a traditional wedding complex with Siberian Tartars from the south of Tyumen Oblast including match making, wedding and post-wedding rites, disclosing the meaning of certain rituals. Subject to enumeration being terms of kinship and in-law relations, quoting pro-verbs and sayings reflecting family-and-conjugal relations.
Siberian Tartars, rite, ritual, match making, bride-wealth, marriage portion, wedding, terms of kinship and in-law relations, proverbs, sayings.
Ethnic markers in wedding rites with Tartars from the Republic of Bashkortostan
Subject to description being traditional markers and archaic notions in wedding rites with Tartars from the Republic of Bashkortostan in the late XIX — early XX c., their symbols and importance. Beliefs and magic notions of traditional wedding rites with Tartar people being rooted into ethnogenesis of Turk-language peoples, though in the modern high tech and industrial society they have lost their importance.
Åthnic markers, wedding rites with Tartars, archaic notions, ethnogenesis.
The thread connecting the worlds (on the embodiment of the idea of the universal link in the myth-and-ritual tradition of Siberian shamanism)
The article asserts the key value of an archetypical idea of the universal link in the model of the universe in Siberian shamanism. Subject to analysis being notions embodied in a mythological image of the thread connecting the worlds. The author comes to a conclusion that this idea being meaningful in the development of shaman’s world outlook where visible and invisible images of the thread tend to connect a shaman with the world of spirits and the world of people, symbolizing his special ability to restore broken relations.
Shamanism, thread, hair, soul, life.
Funeral rites with settlers from Byelorussia – Russian old- believers and Byelorussians in XX – early XXI century
The paper is devoted to a comparative-historical investigation regarding Russian old-believers — settlers from Byelorussia in early ÕÕ c., basing on materials of funeral rites. The investigation is made on the basis of new field data obtained by expedition-2013 undertaken together with Byelorussian scientists — ethnographers and folklorists. The published data allowed to demonstrate certain local features of funeral rites with the said group against other old-believers’ groups from Siberia, Urals and European Russia, tracing the mutual influence on the part of their neighbours — Orthodoxal Byelorussians.
Funeral rites of East Slavic peoples from West Siberia, inter-ethnic mutual influences, local traditions of Russian old-believers and Byelorussians from Vasyugan area, funeral repast.
Agapov M.G., Poplavsky R.O., Cheryepanov M.S.
Sociocultural communities under (de)modernization
The article proposes concept frames regarding the investigation of sociocultural communities as agent of (de)modernization. A starting point of our arguments is a theory of cultural modernization by R. Inglehart — Chr. Wel-zel according to which changes in cultural sphere represent an intermediate mechanism, linking changes in socioeconomic and political spheres. Sociocultural communities are defined as communications in connection with formulating patterns of perception and evaluation of the surrounding world. In the analytical respect, what serve connecting links of (de)modernization and sociocultural communities being forms of social capital, the character of relations in the community, and producing/reproducing patterns and ideals.
À theory of cultural modernization by Ð. Inglehart — Chr. Welzel, sociocultural communities, social capital.
Yershova Ye.G., Krenke N.A.
Investigation of natural and cultural landscapes of the Iron Age in the valley of the Moskva-river using methods of palynology and archaeology
The paper presents results of archaeological and paleobotanical investigations in the valley of the Moskva-river, aimed at studying features of economic activity and spatial organization of land use in the Iron Age (VIII–VI cc. B.C. — V c. A.D.). Subject to detailed consideration being the specificity of formation of pollen spectra in the cultural layer of Dyakovo settlement, preventing from using those for general reconstruction of the regional vegetation. It was established that, using spores and pollen method, the signs of presence of developed agriculture, together with long-term anthropogenic changes in the landscapes, could be fixed only in the areas of intensive economic development immediately around the settlements, practically unnoticeable beyond their bounds. It is suggested that despite dense population in the valley of the Moskva-river in the Iron Age, the cultivated parts of the landscapes were of a «focused» character with stable boundaries. This considerably distinguished them from the medieval ones, when it was a much bigger territory, compared with the Iron Age, involved into agricultural circulation.
Iron Age, the Dyakovo culture, valley of the Moskva-river, cultural landscapes, buried soils, system of land use, spores and pollen analysis.
Yen’shin D.N., Skochina S.N.
Adaptation resources of the Neolithic population from the Mergen’ lake (housebuilding aspect)
Subject to estimation being adaptation resources in terms of studying housebuilding with the Neolithic population to have left settlements on the north-east side of the Mergen’ lake in the Low Ishim basin. Within limits of that economic-and-ecological niche, they discovered possible building materials, instruments, erection methods and details of the inner arrangement of the dwellings. Basing on particulars of the dwellings, they undertook their graphic reconstructions.
Low Ishim basin, the Neolithic Age, housebuilding, adaptation resources, settlement, Mergen’ 3, Mergen’ 6, Mergen’ 7, economic-and-ecological niche, dwelling, heating systems, arrangement of the hearths, heating pits, drainage-and ventilation ditches.
Hunting and fishing tools in the Neolithic of the Low Ishim basin
The paper considers a big collection of tools with direct or indirect relation to hunting and fishing in the inventory of the Neolithic sites from the Low Ishim basin. Basing on complex analysis, including typological analysis and trace evidence analysis, subject to identification being types of hunting and fishing tools, revealing traces of their use.
Neolithic Age, Low Ishim basin, heads of spears, fishing tools, typological and trace evidence analysis, microphotos of traces of use.
Children’s burials with sets of knucklebones and a role of games in societies of steppe population of the Bronze Age
The article considers children’s burials with sets of knucklebones, represented in sites of the Bronze Ages from Eurasian steppes (the Sintashta, Petrovka, Potapovka, Alakul, and srubnaya ones). Subject to identification being two age groups with sets of knucklebones being of different purpose. Attracting a broad circle of ethnographic sources as analogies, the author comes to a conclusion on the early existence of specific children’s sacral sphere which spread not only into the field of children’s things, but also into their games.
Sites of the Sintashta, Petrovka and Potapovka types, Alakul culture, srubnaya culture, sets of knucklebones, children’s games, a sacral sphere of life.
Stepnoye 25 burial site of the Bronze Age (investigation results)
The article gives investigation results regarding Stepnoye 25 burial site of the Bronze Age (Chelyabinsk Oblast). The complex has a long history of investigation, starting from the 1950s. In 2013, subject to investigation being a mound of srubnaya archaeological culture containing a central female burial and seven periphery children’s burials in a ditch.
Bronze Age, srubnaya culture, South Trans-Urals, burial rite, steppe, forest steppe.
Bakhshiyev I.I., Bakhshiyev R.I.
Settling structure and models of organizing living space with ancient population of Bashkir Trans-Urals (analysis of spatial data)
The paper considers particulars of a spatial arrangement system regarding settlements of the late Bronze Age on the territory of Bashkir Trans-Urals, using methods based on the «rank-size» rule. Within a local territory, subject to construction being a hierarchy scheme of subordinate sites defined into limits of corresponding spatial settlement complexes — microregions/clusters.
Late Bronze Age, settlement sites, Bashkir Trans-Urals, spatial relations, gravitation models, microregion, rank-size, associative number.
Clay anthropomorphous plastic arts of medieval Trans-Urals
The Middle Ages in Trans-Urals in IX–XII cc. is characterized by the existence of cultures (Yudinskaya, Ust-Ishimskaya, Kintusovskaya) in which archaeological material being such category of findings as clay anthropomorphous plastic arts. Figurines of a small size mostly depict sitting people dressed into clothes elaborately decorated with ornament.
Middle Ages, Trans-Urals, clay plastic arts, anthropomorphous figurines.
Borzunov V.A., Chemyakin Yu.P.
Karym burial sites from taiga Low Ob basin
The article describes Karym necropolises from West Siberian middle and south taiga, including a burial site discovered in Surgut Low Ob basin. Subject to establishment being originality of early medieval mound burial sites left by the communities with mixed population, among those descendants of north Karym and south Sargatka groups.
West Siberia, taiga, early Middle Ages, Karym stage, burial sites.
Shirobokov I.G., Yushkova M.A.
Anthropological materials of collective burials from Malli stone burial site with enclosures, in accordance with rituals of cremation and inhumation (after excavation results of 2010)
The publication is devoted to studying skeleton remains from excavations-2010 of Malli burial site belonging to the culture of stone burial sites with enclosures. The archaeological materials of the site date back to two stages — the early Roman time and the third quarter of I millennium A.D. Subject to identification being remains of at least 12 persons buried in accordance to the ritual of cremation, and those of other 12 — to the ritual of secondary inhumation. They discovered a relation between location of slightly burnt and unburnt bones and findings of the Roman time, and between big accumulations of calcined bones and findings of Merovingian time.
Cremation, inhumation, secondary burials, time of the Roman influence, Merovingian time, Baltics, Izhora Hills.
Komarov S.G., Kitov Ye.P.
The population of Volga-Urals interfluve during the Golden Horde time (after materials from Mokrinsky I burial site)
The article is devoted to studying craniological series of the Golden Horde time, obtained from excavating Mokrinsky I in West Kazakhstan Oblast, the Republic of Kazakhstan. A nomadic group to have left the series was characterized by Mongoloid features in the anatomy of the skull. A comparative analysis of the male and female crania demonstrated the existence of the common morphological complex for both males and females buried in the site. The population of Volga-Urals interfluve represented by the investigated crania, after a combination of racial features, was a group with most strongly marked Mongoloid features on a scale of East Europe steppe zone under the sway of the Golden Horde.
Paleoanthropology, craniology, Golden Horde, nomads, Volga-Urals interfluve.
Svyatova Ye.O., Razhev D.I.
Analysis of intragroup variability of craniological series from Russian Orthodox cemeteries of Ural towns
The paper presents results of intragroup analysis of craniological materials originating from Russian urban Orthodox cemeteries of XVII — early XX cc. on the territory of the Middle and South Urals. As part of the genera-lized sampling, subject to identification and analysis being three reliably differing morphological groups of ingenious origin. The first morphological group is presented by crania of Caucasian look, the second one — by Caucasian crania with an admixture of Mongoloid features, while the third one — by mixed Caucasian-and-Mongoloid type.
Russians, urban population, Urals, craniology, intragroup analysis, population, anthropological type.
Bagashev A.N., Fyodorov R.Yu.
Historical-and-ethnographic aspects of life with regard to Byelorussian peasants-the-migrants in the Far East
The article is devoted to historical-and-ethnographic investigations with regard to life of Byelorussian peasants migrated into the territory of the Far East in the late XIX — early ÕÕ century. The paper considers assimilation processes and preservation of certain elements of ethnocultural identity with the migrants.
Byelorussian migrants, Byelorussians in the Far East, agrarian migrations, traditional Byelorussian culture, ethnocultural interactions.
Formation of a confessional community of Siberian Catholics in 1830 – 1917
The article is devoted to formation of a confessional community of Siberian Catholics under mass migration from west regions of the empire to the east. The investigation source basis is constituted by statistic data. Using methods of content-analysis, method of aggregating indexes, together with methods of analysis and synthesis, the author comes to a conclusion on a progressive increasing a share of Catholics in the population of Siberia from 1830 to 1917. The mass migration was due to both political and social-economic reasons.
Confessional community of Siberian Catholics, composition and number of the population, demographic characteristics, political exile, economic migrations.
On certain cultural characteristics of Polish migrants from West Siberia in ÕÕ c.
Basing of field ethnographic materials and household books of Village Councils from certain areas of Omsk, Novosibirsk and Tomsk Oblast, subject to a description being certain elements of material and spiritual culture with Polish population from West Siberia, the extent and reasons of their preservation / transformation under social-and-cultural and economic adaptation of the Polish migrants to Siberian conditions throughout XX c.
Poles of West Siberia, material and spiritual culture, economy, adaptation.
North Selkups: A system of traditional views in the reflection of an interview
The article considers a system of traditional world outlook with North Selkups through the prism of a talk with an informant, revealing its certain unknown elements. The analysis of the interview makes it possible to draw a conclusion on the extent of preservation of traditional culture with North Selkups.
North Selkups, traditional world outlook, traditional culture, folklore texts, rites, field materials, ethnography.
Holy places in a system of world outlook with the Ob’ Komi: traditions, innovations and archetype
Reverence of holy places with Finno-Ugric peoples is noted for strongly pronounced forms. Upon settling in the basin of the Low Ob’, in the vicinity of Khanty and Mansi, the Izhma Komi (to have formed the Ob’ Komi ethnic areal group) tried to show their originality, without vanishing in the alien ethnic environment. One could trace two basic tendencies in the interaction field of the Ob’ Komi with nature, with the local Ugric population, as well as with gods and holy places of the Ob’ Ugrians. On the one hand, upon their migration across the Urals, the Izhma Komi tried to develop the new territory, denoting it as their own space. In the first place, it was Christianity (in its folk interpretation) that served such marker. A landscape-and-mythological border, delimiting its space, was often marked by worship and votal crosses. On the other hand, the Ob’ Komi often recognized prohibitions connected with visiting Khanty and Mansi cultic places, avoiding wrath of their gods and spirits — the land protectors of the north Low Ob’ basin. Thus, the Ob’ Komi recognized the holy places of the Ob’ Ugrians, including those into their mythology.
Òhe Ob’ Komi, mythology, traditional culture, myth-making, holy places, sacral marking of the space, folk Christianity.
Bardina R.K., Bogordayeva A.A.
Trends in womenswear regarding the Middle Ob’ costume complex with Ob’ Ugrians after photos of 1930-1970
Basing on analysis of a photo collection from family archives of Ob’ Ugrians, subject to consideration being a transformation process regarding a traditional women’s costume and trends in its use through 1930–1970. It is determined that transformation of the wear followed the course of complicating its ornaments and reducing the area of their location. The trends in using a traditional costume lay in its gradual transition from a category of everyday wear into that of festive one.
Khanty, Mansi, the Middle Ob’ costume complex, traditional wear, traditional ornaments, application work, beadwork, traditional leather footwear, knitted stockings, knitted mittens, ethnographic source, old photo.
Demkin V.A., Demkina T.S., Udaltsov S.N.
Reconstruction of burial food in clay vessels from mound burial sites using phosphate and microbiological methods
By using phosphate and microbiological methods applied in the investigation of soils, subject to reconstruction being composition of burial food in clay vessels from mound burial sites of the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age (III millennium B.C. — IV c. A.D.) from steppe zone in the south of Russia. The reconstruction is based on determining the contents of moving phosphorous compounds and trophic structure of microbial communities in the benthic soil obtained from the vessels and control samples. It is determined that the initial contents of the investigated vessels (over 300) was represented by meat, milk, vegetation (including narcotic) products, and water. Subject to discovery being a relation of the food quality composition with the vessels’ types and their location in the burial, determining cultural-historic and natural-geographic regularities in using burial food by ancient steppe tribes.
Mounds, steppe, archaeological cultures, clay vessels, burial food, reconstruction, natural-science methods.
complexes from the settlement
Nizhneye Ozero III
Chairkina N.M., Dubovtseva Ye.N.
Neolithic pottery complexes from the settlement of Nizhneye Ozero III
The article considers Neolithic pottery complexes from a multilayer settlement of Nizhneye Ozero III located at the bottom of the macroslope of the Urals, in the southern part of the North Urals. Subject to analysis being typological-morphological and technological characteristics regarding two pottery types of the Neolithic Age lying down together at the bottom of several structures. The authors come out with suggestions on their cultural identity and time of existence.
Òhe Neolithic Age, pottery type, typological-morphological and technological characteristics.
Neolithic dwellings from settlements of the Mergen’ lake
Subject to analysis being morphological characteristics regarding dwellings from Neolithic settlements of the Mergen’ lake in the Low Ishim basin (early and advanced periods). The paper identifies structural characteristics, suggesting classification of the structures. Basing on the obtained data, the author traces the development dynamics of the housebuilding traditions with the population from the Low Ishim basin, making graphical reconstructions of the structures.
Low Ishim basin, the Neolithic Age, settlement, Mergen’ 3, Mergen’ 6, Mergen’ 7, housebuilding, dwelling, structure, group, subgroup, traditions.
Novikov I.K., Degtyareva A.D., Shilov S.N.
The Bronze Age burials of Ozernoye 1 and Ozernoye 3 (the investigation results)
The article is devoted to publication of materials from burial complexes regarding burials of Ozernoye 1 and Ozernoye 3 on the territory of Kurgan Oblast. Particulars of a funeral rite, pottery, copper and bronze articles allowed to refer the burial of Ozernoye 1 to the Petrovka culture, while the burial of Ozernoye 3 — to the Sintashta culture. The article quotes results of the analytical (X-ray fluorescent, metallographic) investigation of the copper and bronze inventory, which confirms the cultural interpretation suggested by the authors.
Burials of Ozernoye 1 and Ozernoye 3, Trans-Urals, Bronze Age, the Petrovka culture, the Sintashta culture.
Zakh V.A., Kostomarov V.M., Ilyushina V.V., Ryabogina N.Ye., Ivanov S.N., Kostomarova Yu.V.
The Koptyaki complex from the settlement of Chepkoul 5
The paper considers materials of the Koptyaki culture from a multilayer site of Chepkoul 5, including its stratigraphy and paleolandscape environment, planning of the settlement, dwellings, pottery complex, as well as technological and ornamental traditions with the Koptyaki population. Subject to analysis being an implement complex and pollen spectres sampled from sectional layers of the Koptyaki dwelling 3. Of interest being a finding of pollen, most probably of cultural cereals, in the layers from the filling of the dwelling, which, according to its morphometric parameters, being close to the similar pollen from the filling of the wells in the Fyodorovka settlement of Kurya, which makes a possible appearance of arable farming in the Low Tobol basin somewhat more ancient.
Low Tobol basin, the Andreyevskoye Lake, settlement, the Koptyaki culture, dwellings, spore-and-pollen spectres, pollen of cultural cereals.
Formation of the Fyodorovo culture in the Low Tobol basin and migration ways of its media to the east
The article considers cultural and historic processes occurring on the territory of the forest steppe and south taiga parts of the Low Tobol basin in the late III millennium — early II millennium B.C. and associated with beginning of the global aridization of the climate which peak fell on the middle of II millennium B.C. With a penetration of migrants — cattle breeders and metallurgists — subject to formation on the new territories being symbiotic cultural entities proceeding their movement to the east into Baraba, Low Tobol basin up to the Yenisei. In the Low Tobol basin, on the basis of the alien Petrovka and Alakul complexes, as well as the aboriginal Tashkovo complex, it was first the Koptyaki culture that was formed, and, on its basis, the Fyodorovo culture. The reduction of the territorial water content tends to narrow a corridor of the migration stream to the east, which, as we see it, turns into the north forest steppe. A comparison of the Fyodorovo pottery complexes from the Low Tobol basin, Low Salair basin and Sary-Arka (Central Kazakstan) with that of Kargata 6 from Baraba testify to the fact that those who penetrated into the territory of Baraba, Low Ob basin and Low Salair basin during the Fyodorovo time were most likely the natives from the Low Tobol basin and, probably to the less extent, from Central Kazakhstan.
Low Tobol basin, West Siberian forest-steppe, aridization, migration, the Alakul, Tashkovo, Koptyaki, Fyodorovo cultures.
The owl of Tomskaya Pisanitsa
The image of an owl or an eagle owl stays an extremely rare character in the cave art of North Eurasia. That is why an almost unique image of the owl from Tomskaya Pisanitsa has long been one of the semantic mysteries of the complex, becoming an emblem symbol of both the site itself, and of the open-air museum. The paper grounds versions on semantic meanings of the image and an assumed ethno-linguo-cultural identity of its makers.
Boreal owl, owl, Yama, loop, tethers, progenitor, shaman’s assistant, the Samus’ pottery.
Troitskaya T.N., Mzhelskaya T.V., Borzykh K.A.
Dwellings and household buildings from the hillfort of Zavyalovo-5
The hillfort of Zavyalovo-5 is located in the Upper Priob'ye and dated by VIII–VII cc. B.C. A short-term one, perished resulting from a fire before which it had been left by the population. Subject to excavations being 11 dwellings and several household buildings having similarities in the settlement of Linyovo-1 of the late Irmen’ culture.
The Upper Priob'ye, VIII–VII cc. B.C., hillfort, dwelling, household buildings, the late Irmen’ culture.
Ethnographic sources in archaeological trasology: potentials of across-disciplinary approach under analysis of stone industries from the North of the Far East
The article is devoted to identifying a position of ethnographic materials under experimental and trasological investigation of stone industries. Subject to observation being the history of using such cross-disciplinary approach in investigations of primitive technologies (evidence from the archaeology of the North of the Asian Far East), indicating basic principles and considering specific cases.
Ethnoarchaeology, experimental and trasological analysis, technological analysis, North of the Far East, handles, polished cutters of the Bering type, insert tools.
Buzhilova A.P., Batsevich V.A., Berdiyeva A.Yu., Zorina D.Yu., Yasina O.V.
Rating of interrelation between morphological features and concentration of microelements with modern representatives of the Arctic adaptive type
The paper presents rating of interrelation between concentration of certain microelements in the hair and morphological features with representatives of two groups of the Arctic adaptive type, examined on the territory of the Chukotka Peninsula. The analysis of grade correlations showed that statistically reliable distinctions between the populations of the Chukchi and Eskimos being mainly fixed in the male sample groups, while in the female groups one finds similarity between their morphological and microelement status. The tendencies discovered in the male groups could be considered as a probable reflection of the distinctions in nutrition of Eskimos and the Chukchi, with a bigger share of seafood in the diet of the former. Lack of correlations with females from different ethnic groups could be explained by decreasing of the intergroup distinctions against stronger sex dimorphism. The biggest number of statistically reliable correlations was obtained between morphological features and concentration levels of such microelements as zinc, chrome, iron, mercury and manganese. They discovered positive correlation in the interrelation between levels of zinc, chrome, manganese in the hair and values of certain lengthwise, wrapping and cross-cut body measurements, which to some extent makes it possible to explain reducing variability of the total measurements in the Arctic groups due to specific level of delivery of these microelements from the environment. In particular, it concerns decreased concentrations of zinc. Analyzing statistical relations with development indicators of body fat one finds two differently directed tendencies: positive interrelation between measurements of fat rolls and concentrations of mercury; and negative correlations between fat measurements on extremities and level of iron. The results of this investigation attest to a possibility of using the discovered correlations as the estimation of the impact level of geochemical environmental factors on a human body, which is particularly urgent under analysis of adaptive potential of a population in the extreme environment.
Anthropoecology, body morphology, trace elements in the hair, Eskimos, the Chukchi, Arctic adaptive type, geochemical human ecology.
Paleopathology: from the experience of foreign and domestic studies to the history of studying ancient people in the Low Volga basin
The paper represents a historiographic review of development stages in paleopathology as an academic direction in modern anthropology both in the foreign and domestic science. Special emphasis is made on the history of studying paleoanthropological antiquities, using methods of paleopathological analysis of the bone remains on the territory of the Low Volga basin. The paper also describes achievements of the modern national paleopathological school and its regional branches in the south of Russia.
Paleopathology, history, Low Volga basin, diseases, ancient people, anthropology.
Khudaverdyan A.Yu., Devedjan S.G., Yeganyan L.G.
Methods of treating dead bodies at the sites of Shirakavan and Lory Berd (Armenia) (after paleoanthropological data)
Subject to examination being several methods of treating buried remains of the Iron Age on the territory of the Armenian upland, such as: body dissection, cremation, damage of a facial skeleton, scalping, burial of only the right half of a cranium and fragments of postcranial skeleton, craniotomy. Also, the local population was not alien for human sacrifice. Special treatment of the head of a deceased person stays a special feature of burial traditions with many ancient peoples. The fact that it was the head that was subject to special «treatment», testifies to a special role of this body part in ideological notions of the population from the Armenian upland. The bones bear traces of pits, scratching and defects of the jointing surfaces. These destructions resulted from animal activity, with total or partial eating of soft tissues. The representatives of the Iron Age culture were notable for such criteria as low indexes of odontogenic osteomyelitis, lifetime loss of teeth, dental injuries and moderate frequencies of cribra orbitalia. The obtained data testify to the fact that the food of the population, apart from meat and dairy products, included cereals. Subject to examination being a case of unintentional artificial impact upon the upper first premolar. The economic activity assuming use of teeth as a support tool (processing leather articles, making various ropes, etc.) was a specific feature of the population.
Armenian upland, Iron Age, dissection of dead bodies, cremation, sacrifice, scalping, pathologies.
Masluzhenko D.N., Ryabinina Ye.A.
The campaign of 1483 and its place in the history of Russian-Siberian relations
The article is devoted to a Russian campaign against Vogul è Yugor princedoms in 1483. Subject to identification being basic contradictions in the historiography of this event. Contrary to the conventional tradition, the authors believe that this campaign was not directly connected with Moscow-Tyumen relations, but reflects Moscow’s intention to control the former Novgorod tributaries and Trans-Ural sources of fur trading, among others using methods of Christianization. A special attention being paid to the route of the march, which allowed to determine borders of certain late medieval political alliances of West Siberia.
Moscow princedom, Pelym princedom, Tyumen khanate, khan Ibrahim, Siberian land.
Selkups of the Upper Taz: inter-cultural contacts and routes of communication with population of the neighboring river basins in XVIII–ÕÕ cc.
The article considers a range of cultural contacts and routes of communication between Selkups of the Upper Taz and population of the neighboring river basins of Yenisei, Vakh and Pur in XVIII–ÕÕ cc. Subject to clarification being the location of the Karakon Volost’ to which the population of the Upper Taz belonged up to early ÕÕ c., also grounding a version of localizing Karakon settlement in the vicinity of modern settlement of Kikki-Akki.
Northern Selkups, Upper Taz, Karakon Volost’, communication routes, watershed territories, inter-ethnic relations.
Infant mortality with Komi-Zyryans from the Low Tobol basin late in XIX — early XX century
Basing on data of metric books, subject to analysis being a level of infant mortality by the example of Komi-Zyryans from Ivanovo Volost’, Yalutorovsk Uyezd, Tobolsk Guberniya late in XIX — early XX c. The author considers key reasons of mortal cases, as well as sex-and-age composition of the departed.
Komi-Zyryans, infant mortality, Yalutorovsk Uyezd, Ivanovo Volost’, Òîbolsk Guberniya.
On ritual practices with Komi reindeer-breeders from North Trans-Urals
Basing on analysis of field data, the article considers a number of actions and prescriptions connected with a farewell ceremony of reindeer-breeders to summer pastures, as well as apotropeic rites, revered territories in the mountains, certain methods of meteorological magic, negative omens and methods of their neutralization, together with a description of using amulets for facilitating reindeer pasturing.
Komi of North Trans-Urals, reindeer-breeding, rites of a farewell ceremony, sacral territories, Nyor-Ojka, crosses, meteorological magic, trapping cult.
Sacral toponymy of Komi Republic and its parallels in geographical names of Russian North, the Urals and West Siberia
The article considers reflection of folk religion among residents of Komi Republic in a system of geographical names (natural objects, settlements, as well as places with left traces of ancient population). Subject to information sources being data of State Water Register of Russian Federation, toponymy glossaries, lists of archaeological sites, and field materials by the author. The obtained picture being correlated with sacral toponymy of neighbouring and kin peoples. Basing on the investigated material, the author draws conclusions on certain aspects of beliefs with Komi-Zyryans.
Komi Republic, Komi, toponyny, onomastics, holy places, folk religion, sacral geography.
Course of life and shaping of individual magic-and-medical experience in the practice of folk healing
Basing on the «course of life» concept, subject to analysis being special cases regarding development of healing experience, disclosing mechanism of its shaping. The author gives an idea of dispersion existence of magic-and-medical knowledge as a condition of its existence in time.
Folk medicine, healing, magic-and-medical experience, healers, course of life.
Korona O.M., Rudkovskaya M.A.
Archaeobotanical investigation regarding a trading quarter of Staroturukhansk hillfort
The authors undertook a paleocarpological analysis of soil samples from excavation ¹ 1 on the territory of a trading quarter of Staroturukhansk hillfort. The investigation enabled to describe vegetation composition of the Turukhan river basin before the development of this territory by Russian population, and to determine the impact extent of anthropogenic factor upon the flora over XVII — early XVIII cc. Subject to investigation being a potential of plant cultivation with Turukhansk — New Mangazeya residents and a role of the local vegetation resources in the economy.
Staroturukhansk hillfort, Turukhansk, New Mangazeya, XVII c., early XVIII c., paleocarpological method.