Mednikova M.B., Chechetkina O.Yu., Petrova K.A., Tarasova A.A.

Paleodemography of the Altyn-Asar burial grounds (concerning migrations in the Lower Syrdarya Basin)

Jetyasar archaeological culture was discovered and studied by the Khorezm expedition of the Institute of Ethnography of USSR. According to archeological data, this culture experienced many times transformations due to the influx of new population groups. This article presents for the first time complete data on paleodemography of samples from nineteen burial grounds of Altyn-Asar 4a–t, Kosasar 2 and Tompakasar, taking into account fractional chronological differentiation. We examined anthropological materials from over 600 burials in the storage of the Institute of Archeology RAS. In total samples from Altyn-Asar 4 of the 2nd c. BC. — 4th century was mentioned to the weak numerical predominance of females. The sex ratio in favor of males changed in the 4th–6th centuries. The average age at death of the adult population decreased by the 6th century, primarily among men. Data on separate cemeteries allow a more differentiated assessment of the chronological dynamics of demographic indicators. The numerical predominance of male burials was found: in the 2nd c. BC. — 4th c. AD in burial grounds Kosasar 2, Altyn-Asar 4 m; in the 4th–6th c. in the Altyn-Asar necropolises 4a, b, o, v. In opposite to the most groups, the Kosasar 2 sample stands out with its demographic profile and increased average age of death for males and females. According to archeological data, it may be associated with Xiongnu migration. In 2nd–4th centuries the number of this group was falling, it showed a decrease in life expectancy for men, however, for this period, it seems to be comparable the maximal one. Their antagonists during this period were representatives of other group of incomers, buried in necropolis AA4m, with a low life expectancy for males and females. Despite the supposed influx of newcomers, it is obvious that the genetic continuity of a part of the Jetyasar population, which probably belonged to influential local clans (the necropolises of Altyn-Asar4l and later Altyn-Asar4r), might be evident.

Keywords: Eastern Aral, Jetyasar archaeological culture, Iron Age, early mediaeval, chronological dynamics of paleodemographic features.


Leibova N.A., Leibov M.B.

Digital Anthropological photography

Despite the fact that in recent years the anthropologist's arsenal has significantly expanded due to the introduction of digital 3D scanning, computed tomography, microtomography, etc. into the practice of anthropological research, for most researchers photography remains an important part of the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting images are increasingly subject to higher requirements, since they often appear in scientific circulation much faster than before, bypassing editors and professional retouchers of publishers thanks to various kinds of Internet resources, such as presentations, on-line Internet conferences, reports, etc. In this new digital reality, the researcher acts as both an expert, a director, and an operator of a photo session and is solely responsible for the quality of the result and for its compliance with the goals of the shooting. The high intelligence of modern digital cameras creates a false impression in the beginner’s mind that camera can always be given freedom in making decisions regarding the shooting parameters. However, as shown in the article, there are a number of shooting situations when targeted manual management of shooting parameters is necessary to obtain a positive result. The following information will help the photographer do this. The purpose of our article is to help the researcher anthropologist qualitatively solve his problems using a digital camera. We will try to give an idea of those basic concepts, features of technology and techniques that determine the work of a photographer within the digital space. To this end, the article discusses the main technical and methodological techniques of anthropological photography within the digital space. A brief definition of the basic concepts of the “digital world” and the most important technical characteristics of modern digital cameras are given. The main part of the article is devoted to photography of paleoanthropological materials. Particular attention is paid to the shooting of the skull and odontological materials. Specific recommendations are given on the management of shooting parameters and on the organization of the shooting process, the use of which will allow the researcher to obtain high-quality digital photographs of the studied anthropological objects that meet both the requirements of modern printing and the requirements of representation on Internet resources.

Keywords: anthropological photography, digital camera, photography of craniological series, dental anthropology photography.