Vestnik arheologii, antropologii i etnofrafii   1 (52)  2021

rchaeology

 

Human palaeoenvironment in the Upper Kama River basin: experience of reconstruction 

Lychagina E.L., Demakov D.A. (Perm, Russian Federation), Chernov A.V., Zaretskaya N.E. (Moscow, Russian Federation),

Kopytov S.V. (Perm, Russian Federation), Lapteva E.G., Trofimova S.S. (Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation)

 

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Here, we present the results of comprehensive (archaeological and palaeoecological) studies undertaken in 20142018 in the basin of the Upper Kama River in the north of Perm Region, eastern part of the East European Plain. The main objects for the research were archaeological sites, primarily their chronological attribution and localization specifics. In total, 100 sites belonging to a wide chronological range from the Mesolithic to the Late Middle Ages were identified in the study area. The palaeochannel method was used to identify the association of the archaeological sites to certain landscapes within the river valley. As a result, five morphologically diverse sectors have been identified. For the reconstruction of natural landscapes and plant communities, palynological and plant macrofossil methods were used. Radiocarbon analysis was used to date these events. The initial human habitation of the Upper Kama region took place in the early Holocene, after the formation of the 2nd and 1st river terraces. The Mesolithic sites have been dated to this period. They were located either on the second river terrace, or on the bedrock valley side. In the Middle Holocene, along with the spread of broad-leaved species in forests, 6th5th floodplain generations were formed, and the river was characterized by high water content. The Neolithic sites located on the Kama river terraces belong to this period. In the end of the Middle Holocene, the maximum distribution of spruce forests began. This was the time of existence of the Garin Chalcolithic Culture settlements. They were located either on the 4th5th floodplain generations, or on the bedrock valley side. In the end of the Subboreal and first half of the Subatlantic periods, a key role in the forest stand was played by pine, forming southern taiga light coniferous forests. The water content of the Kama decreased. The sites of the Early Iron Age, located on low terraces or in the floodplain, are dated to this time. In the second half of the Subatlantic period of the Holocene, forests acquired modern mid-taiga appearane, which coincided with the arrival of the medieval population. Medieval hillforts were located on the bedrock valley sides, and the settlements were associated with river terraces, shores of oxbow lakes and floodplains of small rivers.

Key words: the Upper Kama, archaeology, radiocarbon, paleochannel, spore-pollen and plant macrofossi analyses, Holocene.

 

https://doi.org/10.20874/2071-0437-2021-52-1-1

 

Funding. This study was carried out by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Perm Kray, agreement No. -26/1192 of December 19, 2019; with the support of the RFBR grant No. 20-05-00276 (geomorphological studies of Kama floodplains and terraces); within the framework of the state assignment of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences No. AAAA-A19-119031890086-0 (palynological and paleocarpological studies), and the state assignment of the Institute of Geography, RAS, No. 0127-2019-0008.


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Accepted: 07.12.2020

Article is published: 26.02.2021

 

Lychagina E.L. 

Perm State University, Bukireva st., 15, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation

Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Sibirskaya st., 24, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation

E-mail: LychaginaE@mail.ru (Lychagina E.L.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3277-2414

 

Demakov D.A.

Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Sibirskaya st., 24, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation

E-mail: demakov-denis@mail.ru (Demakov D.A.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3808-1673

 

Chernov A.V.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 1, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

E-mail: Alexey.chernov@inbox.ru (Chernov A.V.)

 

Zaretskaya N.E.

Institute of Geography, RAS, Staromonetny per., 29, Moscow, 119017, Russian Federation

Geological Institute of RAS, Pyzhevsky per., 7, Moscow, 119017, Russian Federation

E-mail: n_zaretskaya@inbox.ru (Zaretskaya N.E.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9194-7432

 

Kopytov S.V.

Perm State University, Bukireva st., 15, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation

E-mail: kopytov@psu.ru (Kopytov S.V.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0011-3748

 

Lapteva E.G.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of the RAS, 8 Marta st., 202, Ekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation

E-mail: lapteva@ipae.uran.ru (Lapteva E.G.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4009-4067

 

Trofimova S.S.

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of the RAS, 8 Marta st., 202, Ekaterinburg, 620144, Russian Federation

E-mail: svetlana.trofimova@ipae.uran.ru (Trofimova S.S.)

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0691-1270