VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (47) (2019)
Perevalova E.V., Danilova E.N.
CAULDRONS IN THE CULTURAL TRADITIONS OF THE OB UGRIANS AND SAMOYEDS: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL ARTIFACT AND ‘LIVING’ TRADITION
The first part of the article published in this journal considers the archaeological context along with the functional, morphological and social aspects associated with cauldrons in the cultural traditions of the Ob Ugrians and Samoyeds of North-Western Siberia. In this work, the authors analyse field ethnographic materials collected from the Khanty (Synya, Voykar, Sob, Kunovat, Polui, Ob, Salym, Yugan, Pim, Tromyogan, Agan, Vakh, Polar Urals), Mansi (Northern Sosva, Lyapin and Lozva Rivers) and Nenets (Yamal Peninsula, Pur and Agan Rivers) in 1980–2018. The study of cauldrons in a ‘living’ culture along with analysing them as an archaeological artefact has greatly expanded the chronological range of the research from the 1st–4th centuries AD to the present time. The archaeological and ethnographic research is based on a structural and semiotic approach. A cauldron, as an element of material and spiritual culture, associated with the methods for obtaining and preserving energy, is directly related to the experience of using natural resources and to the development of life sustenance models for the Northern communities. Numerous archaeological discoveries of intact cauldrons, as well as their fragments and items made from their fragments in North-Western Siberia, indicate the archaism and the continued use of cauldrons as vessels for storage and cooking; fashionable, prestigious, high-status items; a receptacle for the soul; a divine attribute and a talisman, etc. It is not surprising that the cauldron, whose direct purpose consists in storage and preparation of food, is incredibly versatile in Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic cultures. The cauldron appears in the surviving toponyms and legends of the Nenets, Khanty and Mansi. It acts as a measure of volume and time. Cauldrons possess features and properties of a living organism; they contain the energy of fire and stone-iron. The ability of cauldrons to change their condition and position (full/empty, boiling/not boiling, upside-down/right-side-up) is manifested in their diverse duality making them mediators in the following juxtapositions: peace —enmity, familiar — alien, kinship — property, birth — death, wealth — poverty, happiness — trouble. À cauldron is a symbol of family unity, the source of the power for birth-recovery, as well as an attribute of shamanic rites and a border between the worlds. The high mythical and ritual status of the cauldron is emphasised by its celestial origin.
Key words: North-Western Siberia, the Ob Ugrians, the Samoyeds, cauldron, energy, symbol, the spiritual and ritual practices.
Kabakova N.V., Korusenko S.N.
SIBERIAN PAPERWORK AND CARTOGRAPHIC SOURCES OF THE TURN OF THE 17th–18th CENTURIES: THE PHENOMENON OF ‘RECOGNISING’ OF NEW TERRITORIES IN THE EMPIRE
The present article is aimed at estimating the informative value of the Patrol Book of the Tara District (1701) and the Chorographic Drawing Book of Siberia by Semen U. Remezov. Drawing on the comparative analysis of these documents, the authors consider their presentation of the south of Western Siberia through the settlement system of the Russian and Tatar. The study covers late 17th — early 18th centuries, which is associated with the datings of the studied sources. The Patrol Book was compiled by Ivan R. Kachanov, with the patrol having been ordered by Peter I. The Patrol Book contains statistical and descriptive material, includes information on settlements, their inhabitants, as well as various geographical features. Also by the order of Peter I, Semen Remezov created the Chorographic Drawing Book in 1697–1711. It included known data on Siberia and adjacent territories. This source is organised in accordance with the river routes. The Tara District of the Tobolsk Governorate is depicted on pages 84–93 and 107. The maps contain information similar to that found in the Patrol Book, which provides the opportunity to perform a comparative analysis of these two documents. A total of 48 Russian and 51 Tatar settlements are described in the Patrol Book. The Chorographic Book depicts 65 Russian settlements, three small forts (ostrogs), 79 yurts, 5 towns and 8 Tatarian volosts. The difference in numbers was due to the fact that Ivan Kachanov was to note places of residence, places of tax collection, as well as places to which the authorities allocated pay for service-men. During this period, the population of the Tara District developed new lands and founded new temporary settlements, some of which years later turned into permanent ones. Semen Remezov recorded these settlements, so their number on the map is greater than in Patrol Book. The comparison of the studied documents revealed the inconsistency in the names of many settlements. A comparative analysis and comparison of the content of the sources helped determine settlements having similar names and identify identical settlements having different names. The reason for the unestablished names is that some settlements were named after the surnames of first inhabitants; others were named after geographical objects or other inhabitants. For Siberia, both sources, on the one hand, were a sensory, somewhat illusory phenomenon, and on the other, they constituted an experimental perception of the newly included territories.
Key words: Siberia, Patrol Book of the Tara District 1701, Chorographic Drawing Book of Siberia S.U. Remezov, visualization and description of new territories.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF ZONALITY: NATURE AND CULTURE IN THE SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY
The article is theoretical in nature and does not cover any particular region; however, the phenomenon of zonality is of particular relevance to the northern part of Siberia. The article draws a fundamental analogy between the classical theoretical zonal model of Thünen and zoning models of various regions of the world (Southeast Asia, Africa and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Ugra in Russia). Zonality is usually perceived as a natural phenomenon — regularly and naturally alternating natural zones (tundras, taigas, steppes, etc.). Under the influence of changing natural conditions, human activity also changes to one degree or another. However, there are many cultural and human factors under whose influence a similar picture of regularly and naturally differentiated zones emerges. For example, it could be the centre and periphery, previously and newly developed zones, etc. These zones are differentiated not only from an economic point of view but also as complex phenomena including holistic, imperious, behavioural and other aspects. The article is aimed at expanding the standard use of the concept ‘zonality’, reconsider zoning as not only and not so much a natural phenomenon as a broad theoretical approach effective for comparative studies in anthropology, economic and social geography, history, economics, as well as other disciplines. The technique used in this study consists in the identification of similar features when modelling the geographical differentiation of processes of different nature. As a result, the author proposes a general conceptualisation framework for the concept ‘zonality’ as a universal phenomenon of spatially differentiated conditions for activities and the understanding of these conditions by people. The phenomenon of zonality can be observed when the geographical differentiation of any studied process is determined by a regular difference in a certain basic condition from place to place, which has a definitive effect on the development of the studied process. In the case of natural zonality, this is the distribution of solar radiation; in the case of economic zoning, cost of transportation often serves as the differentiating factor; in the case of areas of new development, the differentiating factor is the age of development.
Key words: zoning, geographical zone, center-periphery, development, frontier, new economic geo-graphy.
Ganopolsky M.G., Markova L.M.
SETTLEMENT STRUCTURE OF THE TYUMEN REGION IN THE AREA OF THE MAIN OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: SPATIAL LAYOUT AND SOCIOCULTURAL DYNAMICS
The article analyses the settlement of the Tyumen Region from the perspective of the interaction between the traditional settlement scheme that has developed over the last four centuries, and a group of settlements, where oil pumping and/or gas compressor stations of main oil and gas pipelines are located and maintained. The genesis of this interaction revealed two main directions: eastern and northern. In the first case, the junction points of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which served as administrative outposts, initiated the process of forming agricultural, commercial and then industrial zones (and, accordingly, new settlements); the north direction reflects the main stages of Russia's advancement to the North, including the massive industrial development of a unique West-Siberian oil-and-gas province. The homogeneity of the considered settlements in terms the production, territorial and social aspects allows us to interpret them as a territorial and production cluster. The organising role of the pipeline transport network in the further development of this cluster is shown. Firstly, it contributed to the emergence of new settlements, and secondly, former small settlements turned into the nodal points of the transformed settlement scheme. The result of the cluster formation is correlated with the dynamics of the urbanisation process and is presented in the form of a framework for the development and settlement of the Tyumen Region and its scheme. The consideration of the subject matter is multidisciplinary in nature due to its complex and multi-aspect character. In this study, elements of various methods and approaches were employed: historical-geographical and economic-geographical when studying the genesis of the settlement structure; ethno-demographic when considering the processes of natural and forced migration; socio-cultural and economic-organisational when trying to create a sociocultural scheme of a territorial community.
Key words. Tyumen Region, West Siberian oil and gas province, new industrial development, resettlement support frame, nodal and linear support frame elements, trunk pipeline, oil pumping stations, gas compressor stations, territorial production cluster, colonization vectors.
Liskevich N.A., Kopyltsova I.Yu., Porshunova L.S.
WEATHER FORECASTING IN THE PRACTICE OF REINDEER HERDERS FROM THE SUBPOLAR URALS
The present article considers a complex of various signs used for predicting significant weather phenomena in the practice of reindeer herders from the Subpolar Urals. The authors obtained empirical data in the course of ethnographic expeditions (2007, 2012 and 2018) by conducting semi-structured interviews with hereditary reindeer herders, managers and specialists from the reindeer herding company of Saranpaul village (Beryozovsky District, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area — Yugra). Systematisation along with the thematic classification of the field data revealed that the practical knowledge and skills of reindeer herders include prompt and long-term weather observation, experience in predicting and evaluating changes in hydrometeorological conditions, the ability to determine their impact on the food supply, as well as on the behaviour and health of deer. A complex of various signs helps to predict short-term weather changes or seasonal prospects: incoming of spring / summer / winter, rainy weather and summer temperature, snow depth in winter, bad weather, rain, snow, snowstorm, wind, cold, frost, heat and other meteorological changes. For making a short-term forecast, the following points are taken into account: wind direction in the mountains; presence and location of fog in the mountains; colour of sunset; twinkling of stars; halo around the moon; beauty of Northern Lights; quality of carried sounds (voiced and voiceless); fire draught and smoke movement; cloud form; bird cries; and animal behaviour (deer, dogs, insects). For the most part, these signs are rationally explained by changes in atmospheric pressure and humidity. As a result of long-term weather observations, reindeer herders have noted certain climate mitigation, as well as an increase in the number of anomalous weather phenomena, which are uncharacteristic of their seasons.
Key words: Subpolar Urals, Komi, Mansi, Nenets, reindeer herding, signs of weather.
Kliueva V.P., Mel’nikova N.V.
TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS FOR THE SOVIET ATOMIC INDUSTRY IN THE MEMOIRS OF CONTEMPORARIES
The article considers the training of specialists, who worked in the Soviet atomic industry, covering the period from 1945 to the 1960s — from the initiation of the Soviet Atomic Project until the establishment of atomic energy as one of the leading branches of the Soviet industry. The present study is based on published memoirs of students majoring in atomic physics and biographical narrative interviews of atomic scientists who studied at the Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute in the 1940s–1960s, conducted by one of the authors of the article. The training of atomic scientists consisted in the development of theoretical knowledge, as well as engineering and practical skills. The training was provided at various universities of the country, among which a prominent place was occupied by the Moscow State University, the Saint Petersburg State University, the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute and the Ural State Technical University along with the specialised faculties of other Soviet universities. The public mood (onset of the Cold War, romanticised image of an atomic scientist) and personal aptitudes of applicants (engineering and technical aptitudes) influenced the career choice. When selecting future atomic specialists, a number of «filters» were used, narrowing down the number of prospective candidates. Ideology, latent anti-Semitism and gender influenced student selection. The training of atomic scientists was conducted in secrecy, which was offset by various financial (high scholarship and, later, high salaries) and non-financial (being trained by outstanding scientists, professional fulfilment, patriotic feelings) incentives. The involvement of students during training in scientific and industrial activities resulted in an effective corps of atomic specialists. Following graduation, they worked in restricted-access cities (Arzamas-16, Chelyabinsk-70, etc.), as well as at research institutes exploring atomic issues.
Key words: Soviet Atomic Project, studentship, Soviet physicists, education, post-war USSR.
ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SETTLEMENT OF THE KOMI IN THE YALUTOROVSK DISTRICT OF TOBOLSK GOVERNORATE AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LOCAL POPULATION
The article discusses the issues associated with the settlement of emigrants from Vologda in a new place in the 19th century drawing on the analysis of archival sources, primarily paperwork materials. An extensive group of sources allowed us to trace and analyse the activities of government bodies, as well as identify the causes of emigration and main problems associated with the settlement in a new place. The analysis of archival materials was supplemented by field studies conducted by the Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS in 2005–2008 in the south of the Tyumen Region, where the descendants of the Komi settlers live (Zavodoukovsk, Yurga, Yalutorovsk and Yarkovo Districts). The settlement of Komi family groups from the Vologda Governorate is dated at the first third of the 19th century and is primarily related to the economic situation of the peasants (shortage of land, poor harvest, growing tax arrears). Most of the immigrants from Vologda settled in the Yalutorovsk District of the Tobolsk Governorate, having established compact settlements in Zavodoukovsk, Ivanovo and Pletnevo volosts. Due to a long period of land management works, the first settlers could not get a job for a long time. With the permission given by the Tobolsk State Chamber in 1841, the Komi-Zyryans settled in the lands of the non-indigenous Tatars (Aslaninskaya Volost), who traditionally used these lands in accordance with the cadastres, annually paying yasak (tribute) to the treasury. The culture, everyday life and the lifestyle of the indigenous population and immigrants differed significantly. Land management works caused great discontent among the indigenous population, which led to numerous land disputes. Difficulties and hardships of immigrants were reflected in the archival documents on the allocation of land and forest allotments, their use, as well as appeals to official authorities (complaints, petitions and legal disputes). When resolving the land dispute, local authorities tried to find a compromise and resolve the conflict through the allotment of vacant state lands. However, the Tatars demanded the return of the land given to the Komi settlers. As a result, the land was allocated to the settlers. As the proper conditions for the settlement were not created, in the following years they had to develop new lands, as well as to establish relations with the surrounding population. Later immigrants were settled on the excess land taken from long-term residents, who did not give it to the settlers and oppressed them. A lot of immigrants due to their plight made a decision to move to other governorates.
Key words: Komi (Zyryans), resettlement, migrant, foreigners, Tartar, Yalutorovsk District of Tobolsk Governorate.