VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 4 (47) (2019)
Issues associated with the settlement of the Komi in the Yalutorovsk District of Tobolsk Governorate and their relationship with the local population
Masharipova A.Kh. (Tyumen, Russian Federation)
The article discusses the issues associated with the settlement of emigrants from Vologda in a new place in the 19th century drawing on the analysis of archival sources, primarily paperwork materials. An extensive group of sources allowed us to trace and analyse the activities of government bodies, as well as identify the causes of emigration and main problems associated with the settlement in a new place. The analysis of archival materials was supplemented by field studies conducted by the Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS in 2005–2008 in the south of the Tyumen Region, where the descendants of the Komi settlers live (Zavodoukovsk, Yurga, Yalutorovsk and Yarkovo Districts). The settlement of Komi family groups from the Vologda Governorate is dated at the first third of the 19th century and is primarily related to the economic situation of the peasants (shortage of land, poor harvest, growing tax arrears). Most of the immigrants from Vologda settled in the Yalutorovsk District of the Tobolsk Governorate, having established compact settlements in Zavodoukovsk, Ivanovo and Pletnevo volosts. Due to a long period of land management works, the first settlers could not get a job for a long time. With the permission given by the Tobolsk State Chamber in 1841, the Komi-Zyryans settled in the lands of the non-indigenous Tatars (Aslaninskaya Volost), who traditionally used these lands in accordance with the cadastres, annually paying yasak (tribute) to the treasury. The culture, everyday life and the lifestyle of the indigenous population and immigrants differed significantly. Land management works caused great discontent among the indigenous population, which led to numerous land disputes. Difficulties and hardships of immigrants were reflected in the archival documents on the allocation of land and forest allotments, their use, as well as appeals to official authorities (complaints, petitions and legal disputes). When resolving the land dispute, local authorities tried to find a compromise and resolve the conflict through the allotment of vacant state lands. However, the Tatars demanded the return of the land given to the Komi settlers. As a result, the land was allocated to the settlers. As the proper conditions for the settlement were not created, in the following years they had to develop new lands, as well as to establish relations with the surrounding population. Later immigrants were settled on the excess land taken from long-term residents, who did not give it to the settlers and oppressed them. A lot of immigrants due to their plight made a decision to move to other governorates.
Key words: Komi (Zyryans), resettlement, migrant, foreigners, Tartar, Yalutorovsk District of Tobolsk Governorate.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Article is published: 30.12.2019
Tyumen Scientific Centre of Siberian Branch RAS, Malygina st., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation