VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 1 (44) (2019)
Collection of horseshoes in the holdings of Museum Complex named after I.Ya. Slovtsov
Semyonova V.I. (Òyumen, Russian Federation)
One of the earliest crafts practised in Russian urban centres was blacksmithing, necessary for the manufacture of tools for all types of material production. One of the most intrinsic functions of a blacksmith consisted in forging horseshoes. The horseshoe typology was proposed by A.N. Kirpichnikov. Type 1 includes horseshoes in the form of a semicircle with a toe caulk, which are characteristic only for Russia and existed from the middle of the 11th to the 17th centuries, while the second later type took the form of a three-quarter oval with two heel caulks with a large number of holes for nails and fullering. The collection of horseshoes in the Tyumen Local History Museum has 22 specimens: 12 of these are random finds or brought from historical expeditions around the Tyumen region, while the remaining 10 originate from archaeological excavations in Tyumen in 1988. In the first case, all horseshoes belong to the second type in the form of a three-quarter oval, having an overall length of 11–14 cm, a width of 11–13,5 cm, an inside width of 1,6–2,5 cm, thickness of the shank 0,5–1 cm and 6 holes in the nail groove. There are differences in the number of caulks and the presence of clips (7 of 9 horseshoes have three caulks having a comb-like shape (5) or with a rectangular area). Five of the horseshoes have clips to protect the front of the hoof. Four identical horseshoes, lighter than others, are made of shiny metal having entered the museum as a gift from a Tyumen Gypsy family. In archaeology, horseshoes are represented by fragments. The earliest specimen is represented by a sickle-shaped horseshoe with one caulk (type 1), dating back to the 17th century. The remaining 9 horseshoes are of type 2. Seven horseshoes with 2–3 caulks, 11–12,5 cm long, 1,7–2,5 cm wide shank, 0.5–1.2 cm thick shank, with heel caulks with a rectangular platform (4 pc.) and comb-like (3 pc.). On one horseshoe a rectangular third caulk is noted at the toe. Two horseshoes from the archaeological collection have clips. The predominance of horseshoes with caulks, which were used in winter, is noted. Analysis of the collection shows that the well-established forms of horseshoes, common throughout all of Russia, were used in Siberia.
Key words: archeology, accidental findings, donation, excavation, blacksmithing, horseshoes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Article is published 2.04.2019 ã.
Òyumen State Institute of Culture, Respubliki st., 19, Òyumen, 625003, Russian Federation