VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII ¹ 1 (32) (2016)
About results of research of the dwelling of nomads of the developed Middle Ages of Kuznetsk depression
Ilyushin A.M., Onischenko S.S. (Kemerovo, Russian Federation)
Information on results of field researches of Kuznetsk complex arkheologo-ethnographic expedition of the dwelling 3 in an excavation No 5 on a complex of archaeological monuments of Toropovo-7 in the Kasminsky archaeological residential district in the territory of Kuznetsk Depression to Leninsk-Kuznetsk the region of the Kemerovo region is introduced into wide scientific circulation. Materials of this excavation are subjected to archaeological and zooarchaeological research. New information is urged to fill up a moneybox of archaeological sources on history and culture of the period of the developed Middle Ages of Kuznetsk Depression. The purpose of the present publication to describe results of excavation unique on a design and set of artifacts the dwelling and to analyse the archaeological and zooarchaeological materials revealed in it for definition of dating of object and a meat food allowance of his inhabitants. At research of the published materials descriptive, comparative and statistical methods of the analysis of material sources were used. The dug-out dwelling is characterized as the semi-dugout consisting of a land design and an earth ditch which could be used in the winter and function all the year round. By analogies to artifacts the studied dwelling was dated the period of the developed Middle Ages (the XI–XIV centuries AD) also it is referred to the shandinsky archaeological culture left by Turkic-speaking nomads of East Dasht-i-Kipchak in the territory of Kuznetsk Depression. On dwelling accessory to nomads results of the zooarchaeological analysis of osteological materials from economic holes 1 and 2 in the dwelling 3 among which testify the remains of horses (more than 80 %) prevail. On the basis of the received results of research the conclusion that the dwelling 3 in an excavation No 5 on a complex of archaeological monuments of Toropovo-7 structurally represents semi-earth premises about 34 m² is drawn, adapted for accommodation at the winter period of one family which was used in the XI–XIV centuries by carriers of Turkic nomadic cultural traditions at the heart of which daily food allowance there was a horse-flesh.
Key words: Kuznetsk Depression, monument, dwelling, artifacts, ceramics, figuration, zooarchaeological analysis of materials.
Kuzbass state technical university, Vesenyaya, 28, Kemerovo, 650000, Russian Federation
Kemerovo state university, Krasnaya, 6, Kemerovo, 650043, Russian Federation