BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 3 (22) (2013)
A biomechanical approach to studying physical activity among ancient pastoralists from the forest-and-steppe Altai
With the purpose of studying physical activity among pastoralists from the forest-and-steppe Altai of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age basing on biomechanical approach, subject to investigation being two anthropological samplings (of the Andronovo culture of the developed Bronze Age and the Staroalejka culture of Scythian time). The undertaken investigation showed that the population from the forest-and-steppe Altai of the Bronze Age and Scythian time considerably differed in skeleton lengthwise dimensions and a level of their sex dimorphism. Male pastoralists were notable for very high manual loadings, combining with a moderately high level of mobility. The Andronovo females substantially lagged behind males only in the level of their mobility. As to the Staroalejka females, their physical loadings were relatively low. A range of intergroup variability regarding a level of sex dimorphism of physical loadings with Altai pastoralists was bigger compared with hunter-gatherers. In the investigated samplings, levels of sex dimorphism of physical loadings and long limbs’ lengthwise dimensions being of an inverse relation. It is suggested that hard biomechanical stress could negatively affect body length with the Andronovo females and the Staroalejka males.
Biomechanics, physical loadings, pastoralists, Bronze Age, Scythian time, forest-and-steppe Altai.
Hungarian Sarmatians following anthropological data
The presented article considers paleoanthropological data regarding Hungarian Sarmatians. The article is a historiographical investigation, giving a review of the Hungarian anthropological literature regarding the Sarmatian presence on the territory of Hungary. The present investigation is the first attempt in the domestic anthropology, describing the Sarmatian presence on the Hungarian territory. The Hungarian Sarmatians were extremely mixed in the anthropological respect. Among those one finds both purely Caucasian crania, as well as those with light Mongoloid admixture. Some of the Hungarian Sarmatians practiced artificial head deformation. Certain crania of the Hungarian Sarmatians manifest traces of trepanation. The anthropological types of the Hungarian Sarmatians were similar to those from the Ukraine, the Low Volga basin, and the Low Don basin. In the anthropological respect, the Hungarian Sarmatians were closest to the Ukrainian ones. Besides, the Hungarian Sarmatians included a substantial Alans’ component.
Hungary, the Ukraine, the Sarmatians, the Alans, anthropological types, artificial head deformation, trepanation.
Solodovnikov K.N., Rykun M.P., Loman V.G.
Craniological data of the Bronze Age from Kazakhstan
Subject to investigation being craniological materials of the Bronze Age from the territory of Central, North and East Kazakhstan obtained from collections of the Anthropological office from the Tomsk State University. The authors undertook a revision of paleoanthropological materials of the Bronze Age from the said regions, published by other researchers, in accordance with modern archaeological notions, which allowed to summarize both the earlier published materials and the new ones. The authors summarized four craniological series of archaeological cultures of the Bronze Age from Kazakhstan: the Petrovka, Alakul, Fyodorovo, and Sargarin-Alekseyevo ones. Following their craniometric characteristics, those demonstrate the expressed Caucasian features. The crania series of the Petrovka, Alakul and Sargarin cultures tend to manifest features of dolichocranial moderately hypermorphic ancient Caucasian type, notable for an average size and average proportions of a facial part, being initially of west origin. In the racial-and-genetic respect, it is connected with populations from cultural entities of the Middle and Late Bronze Age from East Europe (the catacomb, Abashevo, Sintashta, Pokrovka, and log cultural entities, as well as the west distribution regions of the Alakul culture, and sites of the log-Alakul type). The population of Kazakhstan Fyodorovo culture being notable for features of the Andronovo variant of the proto-European type, typical for the population of east distribution regions of the Andronovo cultural and historical entity. Certain heterogeneity of the Fyodorovo population from Kazakhastan against the background of a relative anthropological similarity of the populations from the other cultural entities testifies to its foreign character with regard to the investigated region. At this, basing on the craniological materials, one could establish mixing of the population of the Alakul and Fyodorovo cultures on the territory of Kazakhstan.
Bronze Age, Kazakhstan, the Andronovo cultural community, paleoanthropology, craniometry, origin, racial genesis.