VESTNIK ARHEOLOGII ANTROPOLOGII I ETNOGRAFII Y ¹ 2 (33) (2016)
Komarov S.G., Kitov E.P.
NEW CRANIOLOGICAL DATA ON THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF THE TURKIC POPULATION OF THE STEPPE-LAND IN THE MIDDLE IRTYSH TERRITORY IN THE X–XII CENTURIES
The article investigates a cranial series originating from five burials from the right bank of the Irtysh River. The series characterizes the physical appearance of the Turkic (Kimak-Kipchak) population of the steppe part of the Middle Irtysh territory in the X–XII centuries. Craniological complexes in the group studied are predominantly mixed, having both Caucasoid and Mongoloid traits and their racial affinity can be defined as a subdued variant of a combination of South Siberian racial traits. A comparative analysis demonstrated that the Kimak-Kipchak population of the left bank of the Irtysh River with the apparent predominance of Caucasoid features is significantly different from the right bank group. Thus, the anthropology of the Turkic population was heterogeneous and included elements that varied in the degree in which Mongoloid and Caucasoid racial traits were expressed.
Key words: Craniology, Kazakhstan, Irtysh territory, Turkic peoples, pre-Mongolian time, Kimak-Kipchak population, steppe.
ABOUT CASES OF TREPANATION AMONG SARMATIAN TRIBES OF EURASIA
In the article
the author tries to generalize all cases of trepanation among Sarmatian
tribes of Eurasia, he discusses paleoanthropological materials from territories
of Azerbaijan, Volga region, Don region, Kazakhstan, Hungary, Romania. The first
case of trepanation among Sarmatians was pointed out by D.G. Rokhlin in the Don
Region of Russia. It dates back to the III-I centuries BC. The operation was
luckily finished. Hungarian anthropologists studied 6 cases of trepanation among
Sarmatians. All these cases are dated II–III centuries AB. The first cases were
studied by a Hungarian anthropologist L. Bartucz. In three cases trepanations
had been made in therapeutic purposes (Szentes-Kistoke, Hevizgörk,
Zákányszék-Zákánydűlő), in one case (Csengele) it was post mortal (symbolic).
Trepanation methods were grooving and cutting. From Oltenica necropolis in
Romania we know about one case of perforation. We know about one case of
trepanation in Peregruznoe I necropolis in the Volga Region. It was a post
mortal symbolic trepanation made with boring method. One case of medical
trepanation which is dated VI–IV centuries BC is known from Buldura I necropolis
in West Kazakhstan. The author of this paper studied 3 cases of trepanation on
the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic. One case of symbolic trepanation was
found in Mingechaur in a burial of Catacomb culture of Azerbaijan, which dates
back to the I–VII centuries AB. A perforation hole has an oval form. The method
of trepanation is cutting. The second case of trepanation from Azerbaijan was
found in the Sheki Region. It was a ritual trepanation with cutting technique
which was made in an artificially deformed skull. This skull has traces of
probable scalping. Scalping is found among Sarmatian tribes of the Don Region
too. The third case of trepanation among Sarmatians from Azerbaijan was found in
Sandigtepe V necropolis in the Guba Region and dates back to the IV–V centuries
AB. An artificially deformed female skull was perforated with cutting method.
The burr hole is of a circle form. All cases of trepanation from Azerbaijan have
a symbolic (ritual) character. There are 13 cases of trepanation among Sarmatian
tribes of Eurasia at present days in total. Sarmatians practiced both symbolic
(ritual) and medical trepanation. Probably, traditions of trepanation among
Sarmatians have their origins in the influence of the ancient medicine. As to
symbolic (ritual) trepanation, it can be related with the influence of nomads of
Key words: trepanation, Sarmatians, paleoanthropology, scalping, Azerbaijan.