BULLETIN OF ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY ¹ 2 (17) (2012)
Ryndina N.V., Ravich I.G.
On metal industry of Maikop tribes from North Causasus (after chemical and technological investigation data)
The most striking and multiform varied East European metal of the Early Bronze Age is connected with sites of Maikop tribes from North Caucasus of IV — early III millennium B.C. The Maikop collections represent several hundred implements, weapons, cult and household articles made of arsenical and arsenical nickel bronzes. Until recently, subject to discussion being a question of location of their industry and a possibility of development of local ore sources by the Maikop tribes. Basing on investigation of chemical and technological characteristics of different findings, using spectral analysis, ray fluorescence, metallography, scanning electron microscopy and splinter radiography, it was established that metallurgists from the Maikop tribes both mined, smelted and worked metal on their own. The most significant evidence of using local nickel and arsenic ores being uranium oxides found in metal pores and impurities of the Maikop articles. Uranium was found in the Dakhovsk and Byelorechensk fields of nickel arsenites and arsenates, and of native arsenic. These are located in the interfluve of the Bely and Laba rivers — the left tributaries of the Kuban in the area of mass concentration of the Majkop burial complexes. Despite cases of ethnocultural and industrial interaction between North Caucasus and Middle East during the whole period of IV millennium B.C., the development of metallurgy and metal working in the Maikop medium went its own independent way. Among other things, it is also testified both by formula mixing norms of obtaining bronzes and composition of their traces to be sharply different from synchronous metal of Transcaucasia and Middle East.
North Caucasus, Early Bronze Age, metal of the Maikop culture, traces of arsenical bronzes, natural science methods, local metal working.
Pottery of the Makhanjar culture
The paper is devoted to pottery reconstruction of the Makhanjar culture, quoting results of technical and technological analysis of the initial raw material and molding masses, using method of binocular microscopy and petrographic analysis of pottery samples. It also gives results of physical modeling (making patterns to study molding compounds, vessels’ molding, and methods of pottery ornamentation) as well as trace analysis of bone pottery implements.
The Neolithic of Turgai, the Makhanjar culture, technical and technological pottery analysis, experimental and pattern method, pottery reconstruction.
The Koptyaky culture in the Low Tobol basin
The article considers the Koptyaky materials (dwellings, burial places, pottery, and inventory) from the Low Tobol basin, allowing to specify at least two development stages in the culture formed on the Tashkovo and Petrovka-Alakul bases, and chronologically fitting into a period between the Alakul and Fyodorovo complexes, while the latter, in our view, being formed in the Low Tobol basin on the Koptyaky base.
Low Tobol basin, the Koptyaky culture, dwellings, burial places, pottery, inventory, the Tashkovo, Petrovka-Alakul complexes.
Pottery complex of the Alakul culture from the settlement of Uk-3
Subject to introduction into a scientific circulation being new data on methods of pottery production of the Alakul culture, basing on materials from the settlement of Uk-3. Resulting from technical and technological pottery analysis, subject to specification being traditions of selecting and preparing plastic feedstock, making molding mixtures, articles’ surfacing, and pots’ baking.
Low Tobol basin, settlement of Uk-3, the Alakul culture, pottery, technical and technological analysis, ornamentation, statistical analysis.
În chronology of two types of loopy bit with early nomads of South Urals
The article considers two types of bit used in horse harness with early nomads from South Urals: bronze bit with simple loopy ends, and iron bit with a locking extension at the bottom of loopy ends and cross shaped fittings. Regarding the said bit, subject to determination being chronological and territorial limits of their existence in the regional burial sites, considering basic view points as to their origin and circulation.
Early nomads, South Urals, horse harness, bridle outfit, bit, the Savromat time, the Prokhorovka culture, cross shaped rigid fittings, chronology.
General and specific features of feminine burial places with early medieval Turki from Central Asia (on reconstruction of certain aspects of gender history)
The article gives results of gender analysis regarding feminine burial places with early medieval Turki from Central Asia. Subject to determination being general and specific features of burial places belonging to representatives of the weaker sex, specifying social differentiation in accordance to archaeological data. The conclusions obtained under investigation of the burial complexes being supplemented with data from written sources.
Early medieval Turki, Central Asia, feminine burial places, gender analysis, social history, burial complexes, written sources.